Breast plastic surgery – medical indications for surgery, types of correction and contraindications

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Women decide to undergo surgery for various reasons: some want to make their breasts bigger, others need a tightening after childbirth, others ask the doctor to correct the asymmetry of the bust. Whatever the motives, before mammoplasty, you must definitely understand the topic in detail, weighing all the pros and cons so that in the future you do not suffer from possible complications and disappointments. Breast plastic surgery is best done in proven clinics in Moscow or other large cities of Russia, while it is worth considering that the price of high-quality breast implants cannot be low.

What is breast plastic

Mammoplasty is a change in the anatomical shape and volume of the breast, as well as replacement restoration of the mammary glands. Plastic surgery of the breast gained its popularity in the early 20th century, then, to increase the size of the bust, paraffin injections were used, which caused serious harm to the woman’s health. Now this material has replaced silicone, and implants are constantly being improved. Along with breast resizing operations, other methods of bust correction and restoration are being developed..


Breast plastic surgery can be carried out both in the presence of aesthetic defects and for medical reasons. Surgical intervention may be required in the following cases:

  • asymmetry of the mammary glands;
  • sagging bust due to feeding the baby, which cannot be corrected without surgery;
  • prolapse of the mammary gland due to age-related changes – mastoptosis (using the classic method of lifting with an incision under the breast);
  • small size and inability to achieve its increase through hormonal drugs;
  • the need for breast reconstruction after serious surgical interventions (for example, after treatment of breast cancer);
  • gynecomastia (development of the male glands from 1 or both sides);
  • extremely large bust size, which gives the woman severe discomfort (in this case, the excess of her own tissues is removed, the mammary glands are reduced and the areola of the nipple is corrected).

Indications for mammoplasty

Types of Plastic

Today, there are four main types of this aesthetic operation, each of which is aimed at solving a particular problem: breast reduction, breast reduction, breast plastic surgery, nipple areola correction. Let us dwell on each view in more detail:

  1. Reduction plastic. Surgery involving a reduction in bust size.
  2. Therapeutic mammoplasty (reconstruction). It is carried out after a mastectomy (amputation of the glands) indicated for a malignant tumor. In addition, a partial mastectomy, during which the mammary gland is not completely excised, is called a therapeutic procedure..
  3. Mastopexy (tightening). This manipulation allows you to adjust the contours of the chest, improving the shape of the glands, but without changing their parameters. Lifting is a complex procedure, so often patients undergo a complex of operations.
  4. Augmentation Breast augmentation surgery, the purpose of which is not only to change the volume, but also to correct the shape of the breast.


Despite the relevance and wide popularity of plastic surgery, not every woman can make a silicone bust, since there are certain restrictions for this operation. Absolute contraindications include:

  • mental disorders;
  • hematological pathologies;
  • chronic diseases in the acute stage;
  • young age (up to 18 years);
  • the period after lactation has not reached 6 months;
  • the presence of malignant tumors.

Cyst and fibroadenoma in the breast

Along with absolute contraindications, there are a number of relative ones. Such negative factors include:

  • the presence of focal fibrous nodes;
  • HIV infection;
  • syphilis;
  • 2-3 level obesity;
  • autoimmune pathologies;
  • diabetes at the stage of compensation;
  • chronic hepatitis B, C;
  • varicose veins.

How to prepare for surgery

If a woman has no contraindications and due to anatomical features or for any other reasons, she decided to undergo surgery, then 2 weeks before the plastic surgery, preparation should begin. For this period, you should stop drinking alcohol and smoking. In addition, the patient of the plastic surgeon must inform the doctor about taking any medications, including vitamin complexes, and, if necessary, temporarily stop taking them. Since mammoplasty is a full-fledged surgical intervention, it is necessary to undergo an examination before it, which includes:

  • take a general blood test;
  • determine blood coagulation by prothrombin index;
  • get tested for infections, including syphilis, hepatitis B, HIV;
  • make a cardiogram;
  • go through an examination with a therapist, mammologist. gynecologist;
  • take a chest x-ray.

The essence of the operation

Mammoplasty is a type of procedure in reconstructive surgery, the purpose of which is to improve the aesthetic appearance of the breast. This result is achieved by replacing the mammary glands, giving the desired size, shape to the bust, and correcting individual parts of the organ. The operation is performed using general anesthesia and lasts, on average, from 1.5 to 4 hours, depending on the type of procedure, type of access, location of the incision, and individual characteristics of the patient.

Breast augmentation surgery

The enlarging endoprosthesis is installed through a surgical incision that the doctor can perform under the breast, in the armpit or along the contour of the areola of the nipple. The incision site is selected individually for each patient, depending on the features of the constitution. Having performed it, the surgeon forms a special pocket for the implant. After installing artificial material under the skin, the surgeon sutures. Breast surgery does not require prolonged hospital stay. In the absence of complications, the patient is discharged after 24 hours..

Methods for installing breast implants

Silicone material is implanted in several ways, the most popular of which is the submammar (carried out through the breast fold). In addition to it, there are four other methods of implant placement. Consider each type in more detail:

  1. Submammary plastic. Optimal for the formation of large breasts. The main condition for such an operation is the presence of a sufficient amount of glandular tissue, which is responsible for the elasticity of the bust. If they are present, sutures and scars after surgery are almost invisible. In addition, when installing the prosthesis in this way, the breast tissue remains unharmed, which is the advantage of the submammary method over other operations.
  2. Periareolar method. The implant is inserted through the lower semicircle of the papillary areola. The main advantage of this type of intervention is that the scar after the incision is almost invisible, as it merges with the dark areola. The disadvantage of the method is small, almost inevitable damage to the glands and a temporary loss of nipple sensitivity..
  3. Transumbilical mammoplasty. The implants are placed in the bust through a small incision in the navel, which helps to avoid the formation of visible scars. For this unusual technique, only salt implants are suitable, which are filled with a special solution directly during the operation (they penetrate into a small incision in a deflated form. It is possible to install implants through the navel only in front of the pectoralis major muscle, and creating a tunnel from the abdomen to the chest to move the prosthesis is traumatic the procedure.
  4. Transabdominal technique. Dentures are inserted through an incision made on the anterior wall of the peritoneum..
  5. Axillary plastic surgery of the chest. Intervention is via axillary access. Dentures are implanted under the pectoralis major muscle, and they practically do not overlap the view of the mammary gland during x-ray diagnostics. This method does not entail loss of sensitivity of the organ and helps to avoid noticeable scars. The main indications for axillary plasty are the absence of ptosis and a small volume of glandular tissue.

Methods for installing breast implants

Breast augmentation without implants

It is possible to make the bust size larger without using implants using your own fat. This procedure is called lipomodelling or lipofilling. During it, fat from the abdomen / hips or other problem areas is transplanted into the area of ​​the mammary glands. The big advantage of the operation is its safety due to the naturalness of the material, in addition, the breast after plastic surgery retains its natural shape, acquiring additional volume.

Before surgery, the patient undergoes a medical examination, during which contraindications are excluded. The procedure lasts about 3 hours and includes several stages:

  • anesthesia (general);
  • adipose tissue collection by creating mini-incisions using special cannulas;
  • processing the resulting material for several minutes using a special centrifuge to cleanse blood clots and increase the viability of fat cells;
  • the distribution of fat in the desired areas of the mammary glands by injection;
  • suturing, placement of the patient in a hospital for 1-2 days;
  • assessment of the result (a week after the operation, when the swelling subsides).

The rehabilitation period after mammoplasty

In the postoperative period, the woman is kept in a hospital for 1-2 days, after which they are sent home, where the patient remains on sick leave for another week or two. In the first five days after the plastic surgery, a woman is forbidden to raise her hands above the chest level, have sex, or drink alcohol. For 1.5-2 months, she should not play sports, sunbathe, or lift weights. Other rules that reduce the risk of complications after breast surgery:

  • sleep in the first 2 weeks is allowed only on the back, after which you can turn on your side, you can lie on your stomach after a month;
  • you can take the first shower 2 days after the plastic surgery and with the permission of the doctor;
  • 1.5 months after mammoplasty, compression underwear should be used, which reduces postoperative pain, prevents seam divergence and implant migration.

With a successful rehabilitation, the doctor removes the stitches for 10-14 days after plastic surgery. Recovery involves taking medication and lasts from several months to a year under the supervision of a doctor. After this time, the scars should be completely healed, and the sensations should return to the patient with tactile contact, then it will be possible to evaluate the result of the operation and, if necessary, remove cosmetic seams with a laser.

Girl in compression underwear after mammoplasty


Breast plastic surgery is a difficult operation, and therefore has a high cost. In Moscow, the price of the procedure is from 110 to 300 thousand rubles, and depends on the type of implants, the methods of their installation, the drug for anesthesia. In addition, the cost of plastic includes a fee for staying in a hospital clinic. Some medical institutions offer patients a set of compression underwear, the price of which also goes into the total amount of the service. The level of financial costs, in addition, depends on the qualifications of the surgeon. Preoperative diagnostics is paid extra.

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