Sauna can be arranged in absolutely any apartment or cottage. The smallest commercially available Finnish saunas have dimensions in terms of no more than 0.8 * 0.8 m.The height of home saunas usually does not exceed 2.1 m.An arrangement of saunas and steam rooms is possible on the balcony, in the bathroom, pantry, in the bathroom.
Measure seven times, or the benefits of technical calculations
The sauna cabin is an inverted glass structure that is installed on a floor covered with ceramic tiles or, more rarely, wood. The base / plinth is usually made of anodized aluminum and is a frame structure. The plinth can also be made of a wooden block, necessarily treated against decay with Tikurilla antiseptics, which prevent the passage of moisture between the floor and the wall. The structure of the walls is usually a two-layer panel with effective thermal insulation, the paneling of the panel is “SUPER” lining made of linden, aspen, North American spruce, abachi (South Africa), cedar, pine. Insulation URSA, ISOVER or mineral wool, manufactured at the ZapSibgazprom plant; vapor barrier – aluminum foil 0.068 mm thick. The walls are sometimes made from a solid, carefully processed and polished bar (solid wood), with a section from 50 x 100 to 75 x 150 mm, laid “in a paw”. The design of the ceilings is similar to the walls.
The shelves are usually made of African abachi wood, which has a unique property – not to heat up: at a sauna temperature of 90-110 ° C, its surface temperature is no more than 40 ° C. Supports for walls of a special design are made of abachi, less often of linden. The design and shape of the backrest create the best conditions for resting the whole body. It is necessary to use elegantly carved ceiling and corner cornices with a special profile. Waterproof, heat-resistant lamps are covered with special decorative wooden shades, which create a special feeling of peace in the sauna. The frame of the bench is assembled on special dowels and is designed for maximum loads and durability. Nails or screws are buried below the level of the seat surface and closed with plugs. Air supply and outlet hatches are closed with decorative grilles and are calculated according to the laws of aerodynamics.
For the glazing of the sauna windows and doors, double-glazed windows with double tinted glazing are used. The thickness of the walls can be easily calculated using the formulas of the Construction Norms and Regulations “Construction Heat Engineering” and classical thermodynamics. The optimal layer thickness of effective insulation should not exceed 50 mm.
Particular attention should be paid to the ventilation system in the steam room or sauna. There are several approaches to the ventilation of saunas, but all of them are based on natural air exchange due to the pressure difference between the air columns of the incoming and outgoing air flows. One of the sauna ventilation schemes (the concept of the Finnish company “Saunatek”) is shown in fig. 2. Firms “Harvia”, “Finleo” and “Tilo” use slightly different approaches in their developments.
An important issue in the process of designing saunas is the correct choice of the power of the heater-heater. In recent years, electric heaters-heaters made in Finland (“Harvia”, “Saunatek”, “Hello”, “Castor”, “Viki”), Germany (“Finleo”), Sweden (“Tilo”), Russia ( “Heat”, “Perm”, “Miass”, Tyumen Medical Equipment Plant). Our calculations allowed us to develop a table for choosing the optimal power of the heater-stove (see table), depending on the influence of external factors. The stove must be properly loaded with stones of a certain breed, the coefficient of linear expansion of which is zero (diabase, overdotite, talc-chlorite), preferably from the manufacturer of the stove. It is forbidden to use other types of stones, because when heated they expand and thereby destroy electrical heating elements and the furnace body.
What saunas are made of?
For the construction of saunas and steam rooms, it is necessary to use only high-quality materials that undergo special training (drying to a moisture content of at least 8%, processing on woodworking machines with an increased speed, surface grinding). For Euro lining, shelves, flooring, back supports, the following materials are used.
Linden – light wood, easy to process, has excellent properties, does not emit resin. When heated, it releases a fragrant scent of linden honey.
Aspen – can be of different color shades. Resin-free, highly resistant to moisture and pleasant scent. Exceptionally suitable for steam room equipment.
Spruce – light wood used for walls and ceilings. The tree has healthy knots and a neutral odor, low resin emission.
Cedar – a fragrant and beautiful multi-colored valuable tree. No knots and no resin. Suitable for walls and ceilings.
Pine – a fragrant tree rich in knots and resin. The surface is smooth and beautiful, with time it takes on a noble appearance. Exceptionally suitable for walls and ceilings.
Abachi – very soft wood without resin and knots. Often used in sauna equipment.
Mazonite – pressed wood shavings for invisible parts of the wall and ceiling. Economical and environmentally friendly material.
The wood surface is processed:
Calculations and design experience of professionals show that when building saunas and steam rooms, the following recommendations should be observed.
The thickness of the effective insulation layer should be 50 mm.
The insulation from the inner surface must be insulated with a vapor barrier made of aluminum foil. It is advisable to use insulation with a foil layer of the URSA type.
An air gap of up to 10 mm must be created between the inner layer of insulation, covered with a layer of foil, and the inner layer of the lining..
All materials for building a sauna must be pre-dried to a moisture content of at least 8%.
The power of heating devices (heaters) is selected depending on the volume of the steam room and corresponds to: approximately 1 kW of heating element power – 1 m3 of air.
It is necessary to correctly design and arrange ventilation in the sauna or steam room, otherwise the oxygen in the air will burn out, which will lead to dangerous consequences for humans and the fire of the sauna.
For the design and construction of a sauna, it is best to contact a specialized organization.