What Russian doesn’t like driving fast! What Russian does not like to take a steam bath … And indeed, if a Russian loves a bath, then give it hot – God himself ordered.
In the bath, everything is subordinated to one idea – to get cool steam that is good for your health. However, the temperature in the steam room can be very relatively high. Correctly selected wood species, the organization of proper ventilation and air circulation in the steam room serve to relieve the shock that the body receives through the touch. Shock is the body’s reaction to a high temperature, at which all organs begin to work in overload. In small quantities (individually for everyone), this is only useful: adrenaline is produced, the body’s protective reserve is turned on, immunity is strengthened, an intensive cleansing of the body occurs.
Therefore, with proper construction, there are no trifles. Every little thing is one of the nuances working on the main idea of the sauna – maximum heating without harmful consequences.
Many people think that a strong steam room is only for very healthy people, and for those who, for example, have a bad heart, it is not suitable. You can steam at a low temperature in a “strangled” steam room and load the heart of a healthy person, so that even he will feel uncomfortable. Conversely, a little time in a hot Russian bath is not harmful, but beneficial, but nevertheless, the recommendations of doctors should be taken into account.
Entering a well-built sauna, heated to a high temperature, a person, inhaling hot air, experiences a very pleasant sensation. If the construction technology is violated, in such a bath, after five minutes (depending on the state of health) a person may experience unpleasant sensations – nausea, palpitations, heaviness on the heart – he will want to go out. After the steam room, he will rest for a long time and may feel overwhelmed for some time…
The place for a bath on the site should be chosen in accordance with the sanitary and fire safety standards, the dimensions – with building codes at the rate of 3-4 sq.m. total area for one washable. The best material for building a bath is pine or spruce dry logs or beams 12-20 cm thick. Chopped wooden walls quickly and completely absorb steam, while maintaining a constant temperature and humidity in the steam room. The aromatic substances contained in pine and spruce wood, released at elevated temperatures and humidity, have bactericidal properties. You can build baths of red brick, rubble or natural stone, but walls made of stone materials with a sharp temperature drop are covered with water drops – condensate, they heat up for a long time and cool down quickly.
To retain heat in the bath, they make a low headroom and a high threshold. A door with a size of 70×170 cm is made of boards 40-50 mm thick in a tongue or a quarter so that it freely, with a gap of 4-5 mm on the side, goes into the folds of the box, but at the same time it is tightly covered along the edge canvases. The threshold is made with a height of 20-25 cm, the window is with an opening about 1 m high, the frames are double with a glazing area of 50×60 cm.The ceiling height in the steam room and washing rooms is taken in the range from 2 to 2.3 m for rapid heating of the room with minimal heat consumption. energy.
When building a bath, special attention should be paid to the installation of floors and a weir. The floors in the dressing room (dressing room) are made warm from two floors, the so-called black and clean. The clean floor is painted or covered with linoleum. In brick baths, it is covered with ceramic tiles. When installing floors in the washing and steam rooms, first of all, it is necessary to ensure the normal flow of used water and its discharge into the sewer (local system or using a sump and absorption pit). It is arranged in the form of an inclined surface made of water-repellent material (concrete, clay, etc.) with a slope towards a pit (small capacity), equipped with a water seal and connected by a drain pipe with an absorption pit. The pit can be made of any suitable material, but so that it is sealed. At the level of 10-12 cm from the bottom, the outlet end of the overflow pipe is started, and a plate is installed obliquely towards it, hermetically fixed on all sides, except for the lower edge, which should be 50-60 mm from the bottom. This device forms a water seal that prevents unpleasant odors from entering the drain.
The wooden floor covering is carried out along the logs installed on the support pillars with the use of waterproofing. The floorboards are fastened with a gap of 5-6 mm in order to ensure a normal weir in case of strong swelling. For the same purpose, longitudinal chamfers are removed on the boards, making the upper face sloping. Solid floors are made according to the same principle as the drainage base, but the pit must be located in the room itself, therefore it is covered with a drainage grate. The sewage system must be equipped with a ventilation riser, which, to simplify the design, can be mounted on a drain from an asbestos-cement or metal pipe with a diameter of at least 100 mm; the upper end is equipped with a cap or a deflector.
Who came up with the idea of making a wooden floor in the steam room is understandable. It is not clear why many people still do not want to give it up. If you walk on a wet parquet floor with boots or bare feet, the floor will become dirty. The same is in the steam room. Whether in slippers or barefoot, after a shower or not, the floor will still get dirty very soon. It is strictly forbidden to cover it with varnish! Nothing in the steam room should be varnished. No matter how good (according to the manufacturer’s instructions) it is. In addition, the wood floor does not dry out. The bottom of the steam room has the highest humidity and lowest temperature. A wooden floor will be a constant source of dampness, mold and odors. Therefore, it is better to make the floor tiled. It will not be cold, and the slippers can be left below.
The location of shelves and stoves in a Russian bath is a special article. It is important here that the steam escaping from the mouth of the stove does not burn the person who is giving and other people in the steam room. In addition, the ceiling in a Russian bath can and should be made significantly higher than in a sauna, and the number and height of shelves depends on this..
There is no point in making backrests – horizontal boards that are sewn onto the wall above the upper bench at the level of the back of a sitting person. If your steam room is made of deciduous wood, the problem that the needles burn and get dirty simply does not exist. They say that the backs get dirty on the walls, but the backrests also get dirty and the shops get dirty. All this sometimes has to be cleaned. Clean only with fine sandpaper without any detergents.
All wooden structures of the bath must be treated with an antiseptic to prevent decay..
For heating a bath and heating water, you can use stoves of a wide variety of designs, mainly heaters. The principle of their operation is based on the use of granite stones as heat accumulators, which are heated due to the hot gases escaping from the firebox of the furnace. Thus, water and stones are simultaneously heated. The stove is designed for heating with wood (preferably birch) in a continuous mode.
The most common material for the construction of a stove-heater is refractory bricks based on clay mortar with the addition of chamotte powder. The walls of the furnace are laid in half a brick or in a full brick with a good banding of the rows and a thin mortar joint. The heaters consume about 150 bricks, 20 kg of clay and 20 kg of fireclay sand for laying the firebox. A firebox with a blower, separated by grate bars and a boiler with a lid installed above them, is connected by gas outlet channels to the heater chamber, which is filled with granite stones weighing from 1 to 4 kg at the rate of 60 kg of stones per 1 m3 of the sauna room. To accelerate heating, about 25% (by weight) of cast iron ingots are added to the stones, which heat up faster and accumulate heat well.
The chamber is equipped with 220×270 mm doors, through which hot water is supplied with a ladle or hose to generate steam. The capacity of the boiler or tank should be designed for a consumption of 7-10 liters of water with a temperature of 60-70 ° C per one washable.
The heater-stove must be positioned so that it simultaneously heats all the premises of the bath – the steam room, the washing room and the dressing room. The foundation of the furnace is laid with a depth of at least 50-60 cm from rubble concrete or red brick. A space of 60 mm is left between the foundations of the furnace and the walls and it is covered with sand. The chimney is laid out of bricks with a 19×19 cm channel, or an asbestos-cement pipe with a diameter of 150 mm is used for this purpose. Wooden elements of the roof frame must not be placed closer than 150 mm from the pipe.
A practical and fairly easy-to-manufacture stove can be made from two metal barrels: one is used as a firebox, equipped with a combustion door with a size of 270×260 mm, a blower with an ash pan and grates, the other as a heater. To increase durability, the grate is made of cast iron or iron, for example, from reinforcement with a diameter of 14-16 mm. A water tank is installed on top of the firebox in such a way that there is a distance of at least 25 cm between the grate and the bottom for laying a sufficient amount of firewood; the tank is equipped with a tap. The stove is installed on legs (stands) and connected to the firebox with a 22 cm diameter chimney.It must have a 220×160 mm door for water supply to steam and a 150 mm chimney.
When providing a bath with hot and cold water from a centralized line, it is advisable to use electric heater. It works on the principle of heating granite stones with a size of 4-6 cm, with a total weight of 30 kg, by air electric heaters of the TEN type. The power of the electric heater is 2.8 kW, it has four heaters of the NSVZh brand – 1.2 / 1.0 with a capacity of 1 kW each, the operating voltage is 220 V. The electric circuit for servicing the stove includes a temperature regulator and an automatic short circuit switch.
The electric heater is installed on an asbestos-cement slab at a distance of at least 100 mm from the wall. Electrical wiring is made of a four-core cable in a metal protective tube. Protection and control equipment is installed in the dressing room. The furnace body must be grounded. To avoid accidental burns from contact with the body of the electric heater, which heats up to 90-100T, they are fenced with a wooden barrier.