- When you really can’t do without forests
- Deadlines, scope and schedule of work
- Varieties of metal scaffolding
- Features of wooden scaffolding and safety standards
Scaffolding is needed not only for roofing works and facade finishing, but they are indispensable in the renovation of premises with high ceilings. Our website tips.RU will tell you when self-assembly is appropriate, and when it is better to rent special metal structures with the necessary equipment.
When you really can’t do without forests
The need to equip a construction site with scaffolding is not dictated by the whim of the developer, but by safety requirements and rules for optimizing the work process. The erection of scaffolding and scaffolding is taken into account in any estimate, representing a significant budget item, therefore the decision on the need to purchase them is made, including for reasons of economy.
Requirements for the construction of scaffolding are dictated by industry-specific occupational safety standards – rules for working with tools and devices. The concept of scaffolding is defined as a spatial structure on which horizontal walkways are placed in rows at different heights.
The rules distinguish inventory scaffolding with standardized parts of factory production, having a passport of the manufacturer, as well as designs of individual assembly. The latter, with a height of more than 4 meters, must be made according to an individual project.
Since both types can be reproduced in the conditions of a construction site, a description of the difference between them will illuminate the question of interest to us: to make scaffolding ourselves, and then endorse them from the project developer, or rent ready-made prefabricated structures.
Deadlines, scope and schedule of work
If we consider the economic aspect, then the decision to purchase forests is made on the basis of an analysis of the organization of the work process. For example, the lease of scaffolding is impractical for long-term construction, when the order of work is dictated not by technology, but by the availability of hiring workers and supplying materials..
In addition, different types of scaffolds and scaffolds may be required at different stages of the work. This is usually typical for special installation work, which does not last long, so it almost always makes sense to entrust the solution to the issue to the contractor himself.
In those cases when the production of work is guaranteed to take a long time, for example, during roofing or facade work, the question of the feasibility of an independent construction is solved by a simple calculation: the total cost of materials and work on assembling scaffolding must be divided by the period of work and compared with the rental cost.
Another aspect lies in the fact that there are quite strict safety requirements for scaffolding. Labor protection is important at any facility, regardless of reporting and status, which means that when self-assembling scaffolding, you will need to observe the standards and tolerances yourself, as well as technical design features. Often, the configuration, type and purpose of scaffolding oblige to manufacture them according to a standard project from expensive rolled metal – in such cases, renting will definitely be cheaper.
If we are talking about a village where active development is underway, it makes sense to consider the option of a cooperative lease. So you can save on logistics, while having a stock of unified parts, it will not be very difficult to organize a common warehouse of structures, from where any of the developers can take them, if necessary..
Varieties of metal scaffolding
Almost all inventory types of scaffolding are made of metal, as well as individual assembly structures are mainly built from wood and chipboard. The reason for this is simple: most special structures are used only once and it is most expedient to construct them from cheaper materials..
The classification of metal scaffolding is based on the method of joining the elements from which the supporting frame is assembled:
- LRSP – frame scaffolding. The main bearing element in them are rectangular frames made of steel pipes. Pins with flag locks protrude on the sidewalls, which are designed to attach diagonal ties and crossbars, provide quick and easy assembly without tools.
- LH – clamp scaffolding. They consist of pipes of various cross-sections and clamps with which the structure is fastened at the crosshairs. The most versatile type of scaffolding in terms of configuration: it allows you to bypass facades of complex configurations and fasten other types of structures together.
- LSK – wedge forests. On their uprights, with a certain pitch, there are flanges with holes intended for fastening to the ears at the ends of the crossbars and ties. They are distinguished by a high speed of assembly and disassembly, as well as a more free choice of the height of the floorings – 0.5 m instead of the standard 2 ones. A characteristic feature is the ability to shift the rows of posts with a decrease in the width of the scaffolding.
- LSh – pin scaffolding. The oldest and most famous type, in which sleeves are welded on to the posts, connected in the sockets, into which horns are inserted at the ends of the beams and ties. They do not require a tool for assembly and are considered the most reliable type of scaffolding: the joints of the structure cannot collapse or spontaneously open, although in general the frame remains rather shaky due to large gaps in the joints.
As you can see, the main advantage of renting unified systems is the ability to choose the option that best suits the conditions and features of the construction site. A striking example of this is the renovation of apartments with a ceiling height of 4 m or more, where work from unsecured scaffolds is prohibited by safety rules. In such cases, it is more convenient to rent mobile scaffolding – tours, with the help of which the installation of ceiling communications and finishing can be significantly accelerated.
Features of wooden scaffolding and safety standards
There are two types of scaffolding based on wooden supporting structures. In the first, the design imitates the unified systems: large cross-section bearing racks are used, to which crossbeams and ties are nailed. The second type includes scaffolds assembled from non-standard materials: pallets, formwork parts, fences, and others. Their height is limited – no more than 2 m above the level of the capital base.
The requirements established by the safety standards are the same for all types of forests. Therefore, when opting for custom-built scaffolds, budget for the cost of ensuring safety rules. In general, they are as follows:
- The curvature of the posts should not exceed 1.5 mm / m length.
- The uprights must be fixed to the walls along their entire height.
- The span between the posts must correspond to the strength of the crossbeams and the cross-section of the ties.
- The uprights are installed in pairs only on pads of 50 mm unedged boards.
- The width of the sites is selected by type of work: 2 m for masonry and installation work, 1.5 – for plastering, 1 m – for painting and finishing.
- Gaps between flooring elements should not exceed 5 mm.
- Steepness of stairs – no more than 60 °, slope of ladders for wheelbarrows – no more than 1: 3.
- Metal scaffolding – must be grounded; lightning protection is compulsory for all types of forests that rise in the open air above the adjacent objects.
- At a height of over 1.3 m, platforms must be equipped with a 1.1 m high fence and a 15 cm side.
- On scaffolds over 6 m, under which work is carried out or there are people, a protective lower deck should be equipped and outriggers should be installed.
- In places of work, adjacent to walls or equipment, you need to build a protective canopy at a height of up to 2 meters from the site.
- The safe area around the scaffolding – not less than 0.3 of their height – must be marked with fences or signal tape.
As you can see, the rules are few, but their observance can significantly increase the planned budget. At the same time, safety standards cannot be neglected – the consequences, as a rule, are more expensive. Plan the equipment of the construction site with scaffolding in advance and carefully, choose the most affordable option in terms of cost and time.