- Technical parameters of scaffolding
- Wooden or metal
- How the frame of wooden scaffolding is assembled
- Strengthening forests with ties
- Scaffolds, ladders and ladders
When building a private house, delivery to the site and assembly of scaffolding is often the responsibility of the customer. It is unprofitable to hire specialized teams for this, and general practitioners do not always cope with the task. In this article we will tell you about the correct and safe assembly technology.
Technical parameters of scaffolding
In private buildings, you can rarely find objects with a height of more than 8-10 meters. This is the lowest type of auxiliary systems and the requirements for their reliability are not very strict. In particular, it is allowed to combine materials and use non-standard technical solutions for connecting or fastening.
The main parameter for all types of scaffolding is the maximum bearing capacity, measured in kilograms per square meter. The required stability is determined by the type of work carried out:
- For facade decoration and special installation – 150 kg / m2.
- For concrete works and masonry cladding – 200-250 kg / m2.
- For brick and masonry – 400 kg / m2.
In addition, depending on the height, the scaffolding can be attached to the wall or attached to it. Scaffolds up to 3 meters in height have sufficient stability without special ties, provided that the width of the section is at least 100 cm, and the height of the tier is at least 190 cm.Free-standing scaffolds are not designed for loads exceeding 200 kg / m2.
With a height of up to 4.5 meters, it is allowed to support the scaffolding to the wall with oblique slats, the upper attachment point of which is at least 2/3 of the height of the rack. This requires free space and a forest of the appropriate length, but if it is possible to support the scaffolding, this is how it should be done. Such structures are built regardless of the facade, which means that subsequently there will be no difficulties in finishing and dismantling..
This technique is not applicable to metal scaffolding: they must all be anchored to the load-bearing layer of the walls. Each of the lower sections must have at least three attachment points, the upper ones are attached in four places, all intermediate ones – in two.
There are also generally accepted sizes of scaffolding sections, for metal and wooden structures they are identical: height 190-240 cm, depth 100-160 cm, length no more than 3 meters.
Wooden or metal
There is no fundamental difference whether you knock down scaffolding from a tree or rent metal frame kits. At low altitudes, both types of structures will be quite reliable, but there are practical features.
If it is possible to rent metal scaffolding, it is better to do so. The simplicity and speed of their installation / dismantling fully justify the rental costs. It also eliminates the need to dispose of the forest after use..
It is worth giving preference to wooden scaffolding only in some cases:
- if the construction promises to be long (even the cheapest rent will not pay off);
- if the building is of complex shape, access conditions are constrained or the terrain has an uneven relief;
- if the object is on the periphery or the forest is easier to reach than metal.
How the frame of wooden scaffolding is assembled
One of the simple and versatile configurations of wooden scaffolding, which allows you to bypass buildings of complex shapes, is assembled as follows.
The system is based on vertical H-shaped rack frames. The stands in them are trimmed logs or sleepers with a cross-section of 120-200 cm2. These verticals are knocked together by a 40 mm edged board. The distance between the logs determines the width of the ladder, and the distance from the bottom to the rail determines the height of the upper tier.
The rail is attached to the logs with 120 mm nails, 3 pieces on each edge. The gusset is reinforced with a gusset plate on the back. Each frame is made immediately before installation according to the measurements made, the height of each of the pair of racks may differ.
To make the scaffolds even along the entire length, the installation of the scaffolding begins with the outer frames. They are temporarily supported on the ground using inclined boards, then set at the desired distance from the wall and at the vertical level. At both corners of the crossbeam, two cords are pulled, from which the distance to the ground is measured with a plumb line, so the unevenness of the ground is compensated.
Each new frame is knocked down and installed 200–250 cm from the previous one, then they are fastened with diagonal boards. The latter are attached with one side 20–30 cm above the crossbar, with the other – to the adjacent frame at a level of 50 cm from the ground. Frames knock on the outside and inside in opposite directions.
Strengthening forests with ties
The scaffolding skeleton is assembled, but the structure is quite “fluid” and needs strengthening. To do this, on the inside and outside of each section, another diagonal is added, crosswise with the previous one. Also, the frames are fastened 30 cm from the bottom with an additional crossbar, for fastening the boards, 2 nails 120 mm are used. With a scaffold height of more than 4 m, it is useful to fasten the crosshairs of the diagonals together with a transverse rail from a cut of an inch board or a 40×40 mm bar.
To support scaffolding up to 4.5 meters high, 4–5 meter inch boards, placed on the edge, are used. Each rack frame is supported, for a secure stop the slopes are attached to the half-meter stakes driven into the ground from a 40×40 mm bar.
If scaffolds are attached to a building, they are usually fixed with short strips to wind boards, gable canopies, or eaves. Fastening to a smooth wall is carried out using a special unit. First, a short 40 mm board is nailed to the wall horizontally, placing the attachment points strictly vertically. Along the same vertical, on top of the board, put the edge of the released cross member of the support frame and fasten them with a short bar or block.
If the length of the logs for the uprights is not enough, they can be spliced. To do this, a groove is hollowed out at both ends into which a wooden dowel or metal tube is hammered with a width of at least 1/4 of the diameter of the log and a length of 20 cm.After landing on the dowel, the logs are fastened with half-meter pieces of boards nailed at right angles to each other.
Scaffolds, ladders and ladders
For the installation of walk-through decking, boards with a thickness of 40 mm are required. They are laid on the crossbars of the frames and fastened to them with nails, carefully sinking the caps. It is optimal when the distance between the upright logs corresponds to the width of 3-4 boards. Boards cannot be spliced on the crossbars, they are fastened together in the spans by strips placed underneath and attracted by self-tapping screws.
The ladders are also assembled from floor boards, which are fastened with pieces of timber located on the back side in increments of 50-60 cm. Across the front side of the ladder, shingles can be stuffed every 10-15 cm to reduce slipping and make it possible to climb the scaffolding of a one-wheeled wheelbarrow.
Ladders and ladders are installed to the supported scaffolding from the end, resting their top on the cross member of the extreme frame. At the same time, sloping ladders need additional support from two or three H-shaped frames of lower height.
To the scaffolding attached to the building, ladders and stairs are placed parallel. For this, the crossbeams of the frames must be released outward by 50-60 cm and supported with verticals or kerchiefs, if necessary.