Vibrating press for block production – making the smart choice

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The article discusses the main technical and operational features of vibrating presses, on the basis of which a private developer or entrepreneur will be able to choose the equipment necessary for their needs..

How to choose a vibropress

The vibrating press is a complex specialized device for the production of piece building materials from concrete: wall blocks, road elements, facing stones, and various decorative items. On this equipment, a volumetric product is formed by vibrating the working area with the use of a “weight” (pressure).

If in the process of vibratory casting, a flowable concrete composition is used, which is poured into molds, then during vibrocompression, an inactive, or rather super-hard, concrete mixture is used. As you know, the water-cement ratio directly determines the strength of concrete (the less water, the stronger the concrete), so this method allows you to get more reliable and durable products with a relatively low consumption of cement and modifying additives. And this, in turn, reduces the cost of products. Since the working process is accompanied by high pressure on the mixture, various, including coarse-grained, materials can be used as aggregates, which are often considered waste of other industries: slag, ash, wood chips, granules of foamed polymers, expanded clay, various screenings of crushed stone, brick breakage , chopped straw … Due to the fact that a rigid mold (matrix / punch) is used in the construction of the vibropress, the geometry of the stones produced is more precise and repeatable. In general, vibrocompression provides increased automation with a minimum of time-consuming manual labor, the cycle is shorter, and the productivity is higher when compared with casting.

Depending on the design features and the degree of automation, the working cycle of a vibrating press includes a different set of operations, but the general principle of their operation is quite simple:

  1. Semi-dry concrete mix is ​​prepared.
  2. The measuring box is filled and fed to the mold.
  3. A portion of concrete is poured into the matrix, preliminary compaction occurs (the amount of air in the mixture is reduced from 60% to 25%).
  4. The punch, repeating the geometry of the die, squeezes the mixture.
  5. Simultaneously with the movement of the punch, vibration of the tooling or the working table is carried out, which is transmitted to the concrete mixture. Under the influence of vibration and pressure, the particles of the semi-dry mass are evenly distributed in the forming equipment, and the aggregate particles are as close as possible and are wetted by the liquefied cement paste. At this stage, the bulk of the trapped air is removed from the concrete (about 3% remains).
  6. Formation takes about 10-60 seconds, after which the punch is retracted, and the product is pushed up from the stationary matrix by a special element (punching machine). Either the movable die rises and leaves the product on a pallet or on the floor.
  7. The formed products are steamed or naturally dried.

How to choose a vibropress

As you can see, the most important element of the vibropress is the tooling, which determines the geometry of the stone and the number of products in the production of one cycle. The matrix is ​​made in the form of a steel box without a bottom. The punch presses from above, and from the bottom the matrix is ​​closed by the pressing platform, or by the pallet / plate, in some structures the prepared floor is the forming bottom of the matrix. The punch moves downward under the action of a hydraulic system, an electromechanical transmission, or workers perform compaction manually – using a lever. The punch is not only a surcharge, but also gives the product shape from the front side. Vibration vibrations are transmitted to the working table, to the elements of the mold. They are generated, as a rule, by areal electromechanical vibrators, of which there may be several in the structure. Concrete bins, mixers, silos, conveyors for material feeding and product transportation, batchers and meters, steaming chambers, etc. are used as auxiliary equipment for a vibrating press. Some molding machines are equipped with all kinds of sensors, intelligent control and management systems, the process can be visualized on computer screens. This equipment allows you to use a vibropress with maximum performance.

Vibropress classification

Depending on what tasks are set for the vibropress, the design of this machine may differ significantly. Many organizations are engaged in the production of equipment for vibrocompression, many of them present models with original technical solutions on the market. The classification of vibropresses is somewhat confusing, since various, often overlapping criteria are adopted for its creation, however, the main groups of vibration plants can be distinguished.

Stationary vibropress or mobile

A mobile vibropress is a mobile unit, the bed of which has a wheeled chassis. Such machines, moving step by step indoors or outdoors, form a concrete product directly on the floor or on a specially prepared site. In this case, the floor is part of the rig, since the matrix is ​​pressed against it, and after the end of the cycle it rises and the unit moves further. The mobile machine is sometimes called “walking”, “rolling” or “laying hen”, it does not need pallets and racks, due to the fact that the products remain in place until the set of transport strength (“IKS”, “Mars”, “USB- 1”).

How to choose a vibropress

These are comparatively small units of moderate weight that can be quickly deployed near a construction site and operated in the field. Mobile vibrating presses are well suited for warm climatic zones, where they can be operated in the open air. Their distinctive features are low weight, electromechanical drive, low power consumption, for example, for the models “Blockmaster-Cayman 3M” (LLC “Aquarella” Rostov) and “Comanche” (LLC “BlockMaster” Ufa) it is 0.5 and 0.6 kW, respectively. In most cases, mobile vibratory presses are designed for manual production of small-piece products (“USB-1-4”, “Builder’s Dream”), but there are also self-propelled vibratory plants with a fairly high level of automation. Machines of the type “Laying hen” or “Laying hen with a bucket” from the company “Monolit” from Zlatoust are the most complex mechanized complexes with a capacity of 10 kW, which ensure high quality and a wide range of stones produced.

Mobile vibratory presses have a number of disadvantages, more precisely, limitations:

  1. To organize production and achieve full productivity, it is necessary to have large production areas (as a rule, it is recommended to have about 300-400 square meters).
  2. The floors should be perfectly level as they form one side of the product. Some manufacturers recommend covering them with metal sheets..
  3. For movable machines, it is difficult to organize the supply of raw materials, a vibropress cannot be connected in a chain with a mixer.
  4. The steaming operation is excluded from the cycle – the products are laid on the site.
  5. The operation of lifting products and warehousing is added.

Vibrating press for block production

A vibropress is considered stationary, which is fixed on the foundation and operated in one place. These are large and relatively heavy units with high productivity, capable of producing almost any high quality products (models “MAGR PS-200”, “Monolit-100”). They are devoid of the above disadvantages of mobile machines. A stationary vibrating press can work as part of a fully automated section with full mechanization of all operations (for example, Rifey Buran from the Stroytekhnika trademark or EUROBLOCK 12 from the Swedish company Scandinavian & UK Machines). Vibropresses of a stationary type are divided by design into those that form products on a pallet, and those that do not need pallets.

? Rifey BuranRifey Buran

Palletless equipment is characterized by the presence of a fixed matrix, which is fixed to the frame (models “SDK-1B” or “VIP-6PB”). The lower part of the end-to-end die is propped up by a special movable element – a press-out device. After the completion of the formation, it (with the punch removed) rises above the edge of the tooling and pushes the finished product out of the matrix. The molded stone is removed by hand or it is moved with a measuring box. Warehousing is carried out in several layers on one pallet (up to 10 tiers). The advantages of these machines are:

  • a minimum number of pallets is required;
  • the height of the product can be easily adjusted using the preset of the press machine;
  • faster one working cycle.

These machines also have disadvantages:

  • a small range of products, all of them with a simple geometric shape (mainly – brick, wall block, paving slabs);
  • special care is needed in the production of all subsequent operations, since the products lie on top of each other, and the lower layers experience high loads;
  • shaping equipment is more complicated and more expensive.

Vibrating presses that form products on a pallet (“Rifey 05”, “Kondor”, “KVADR 1S02”) are much more widespread than “no pallets”. In this case, the die is movable, it is lowered onto the pallet, and after the forming stage it rises with the punch remaining in place. Thus, the pallet performs a shaping function, it forms the lower part of the product. The pallet is removed from the working area and, together with the finished stones, is moved to the racks or to the temperature and humidity treatment chamber. Such a system allows:

  • avoid the appearance of cracks and chips on fresh products;
  • expand the range of products;
  • increase automation (pallets can be replaced by a machine) and increase productivity;
  • optimal use of production and storage space.

The relative disadvantages of vibropresses operating on pallets are:

  • the need to have a large number of pallets to ensure a continuous cycle (productive machines require about 1000 pieces at a price of one about 100 rubles);
  • obligatory and thorough care of pallets.

Manual or automated drive

In the simplest models of vibrating presses, the concrete mixture is compressed by muscular force. At best, the punch is equipped with powerful levers. However, there are models of mini-machines in which the material is simply put into a matrix and pressed down with some kind of rammer, so the product is formed only due to vibration. Equipment for vibrocompression with a manual drive of the movement of forming equipment is the most simple, lightweight and affordable. Such machines are especially popular among private consumers. Manual vibrating presses allow you to create a very limited range of products; when using them, a lot of physical labor is used. The main problem is the low quality of the products, which often do not meet the requirements of GOSTs, since there is no proper compaction of the concrete mix.

How to choose a vibropress

The hydraulic drive of the moving elements of the vibrating press is the most advanced and technological. The design, in addition to traditional elements, has an oil and hydraulic station, a control panel. Hydraulic cylinders work here, which transmit a very large pressure to the concrete mass through the punch, and, therefore, allow you to get the most durable and high-quality products. Vibrating presses with hydraulics are as automated as possible, they are characterized by a short working cycle. The disadvantages of hydraulic machines include:

  • stationarity (with the exception of self-propelled “layers”).
  • high cost (at least 200,000 rubles).

How to choose a vibropress

Vibrating presses with an electromechanical drive work on the same principle, only their equipment moves with the help of electric power plants (there are no oil stations and hydraulic cylinders). Vibrators are also used – site electric. The force is transmitted to the punch by means of levers. Such units can be mobile – deployed anywhere. They are relatively simple, but can be easily supplemented with any auxiliary equipment. The disadvantage of electromechanical installations is low productivity (when compared with pneumatics). In addition, the operation of this equipment requires constant staff involvement..

There are also stationary vibrating presses in which the pressure on the mixture is produced by pneumatic cylinders under the action of compressed air. In terms of their operational characteristics, they are similar to hydraulic units, since they need to be connected to air networks.

Specialized or universal

The range of products produced by modern vibropressing machines is quite wide, they are: various wall blocks, paving slabs, bricks, curbs, volumetric elements for landscaping and construction – there are dozens of names. However, not everything depends on the shape of the tooling (matrix and punch), many restrictions are imposed by the characteristics of the power plant, the design of the machine. A vibrating press that produces paving stones will not always cope with the release of a bulky product such as a curb, and the one that molds sand concrete may not be suitable for making a block with wood filler. The problem may be low compressive force, weak vibration, insufficient tool travel, resulting in loss of quality or too low productivity.

How to choose a vibropress

On this basis, vibropresses are usually divided into: specialized and universal. A specialized vibropress is “sharpened” for one dimensional type of equipment, most often you can find machines for the production of: wall blocks, flat products (tiles, bricks), large products with variable height (curbs). Powerful vibration units are usually universal, since these units do not have severe technical restrictions in order to install some type of equipment and ensure its correct operation. It should be noted that in addition to geometry, versatility may lie in omnivorous composition of raw materials, since products for various purposes are often made of concrete with a specific mixture composition..

Other classifications of vibropress

Sometimes vibropresses are divided according to size and weight. Machine tools belong to one of three or four size classes. They are also called:

  • large (lines) weighing 4-5 tons
  • medium (machine tools) weighing 0.3–1 ton
  • manual micro-installations weighing up to 300 kg

How to choose a vibropress

There is some logic in this, since each class of cars is characterized by its own set of operational and functional characteristics, as well as limited price limits. As a continuation of this topic, a classification of vibrating presses into: household and commercial appeared. The main criterion here is the cost of the equipment and its self-sufficiency. The first category includes handheld micro-presses and the cheapest mid-sized machines that can pay off if used to supply private construction. Commercial units are considered to be more efficient and reliable units that allow the production of concrete products for sale. Many manufacturers of the simplest hand-held “laying hens” claim the fantastic performance of their machines and offer them to be used for small businesses. It is possible to objectively assess the capabilities of a particular model of a vibrating press only if you take a close look at its characteristics.

About what characteristics to pay attention to when choosing vibropress and what is their cost, read the next article.

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