- Why shingles are worth the cost
- An inside look: what it consists of and which manufacturer to trust
- In what conditions the coating will last a long time and how to prepare the base
- Features of laying bituminous tiles
- Step-by-step installation of bituminous tiles
- Underlay carpet flooring
- Laying tiles
- Operational repair and maintenance
In this article we will tell you about the features of shingles, their characteristics, advantages and scope. You will also receive basic advice on shingles installation, maintenance and repair. After reading this article, you can install the roofing yourself.
Flexible shingles have been produced for more than fifty years and this is a sufficient time to determine the real operational terms, to bring to mind the technology of production, installation and maintenance.
Why shingles are worth the cost
Flexible shingles, contrary to popular belief, do not belong to expensive roofing materials. It is in the middle price segment between natural exclusive coatings and common slate with metal tiles. Its cost is fully justified by its long service life: fifty years versus ten or fifteen for cheap coatings.
Otherwise, there are only pluses:
- Does not support combustion.
- Serves confidently in almost any climate.
- Fast and easy to repair.
- Minimized pruning waste.
- Good sound insulation.
- Avalanche snowfall is excluded.
- Does not build up static charge.
The most actual plus of bituminous shingles – high aesthetic qualities – is worth a separate mention. The coating looks natural even with a very variegated range of colors, the type of tiles is perfectly combined with any design solutions.
An inside look: what it consists of and which manufacturer to trust
Shingles are supplied in plastic segments called shingles, in one of six different geometric shapes. Each shingle has a solid fiberglass or polyester base impregnated with bitumen, which is covered with stone granulate on the front side.
The strength of the tiles and their resistance to tearing depends on the quality of the substrate. As a rule, manufacturers openly declare the results of load tests of the web. Polyester fabric is also distinguished by its elasticity, this is the most expensive type of base for tiles..
Natural bitumen enriched with oxygen and modified with various additives is used to impregnate the coating. The two most important are:
- dolomite flour, which makes the product hard;
- an SBS (synthetic rubber) modifier that reduces the exposure of shingles to extreme temperatures and sunlight.
Basalt or sandstone chips are used as granules. The ratio of fractions of different sizes is selected for optimal filling of the surface.
In Russia, the market for bituminous tiles is represented by five major manufacturers. Using modern imported equipment, they are not inferior in quality to products manufactured in the USA or Europe.
Docke TechnoNICOL (SHINGLAS) Ruflex Tegola Katepal The cost of “useful” sq. m 300-340 rub. 230-1300 rub. 350-460 rub. 240-600 rub. 450-1300 rub. Guarantee 50 years 25-55 years old 35 years 10 and 15 years old 25 years Assortment of colors More than 20 More than 50 nineteen Over 100 38 Geometry models / shapes 5/5 8/5 6/6 47/5 6/3 Thickness 3-3.5 mm 2.7-6 mm 3.2 mm 3-6.6 mm 3 mm The basis Non-woven fiberglass 120 g / m2 Non-woven fiberglass 110 g / m2 High strength fiberglass Non-woven fiberglass 115-125 g / m2 High strength fiberglass Bitumen type SBS Oxidized SBS Polymer-bitumen RM modified SBS
In what conditions the coating will last a long time and how to prepare the base
Most types of shingles are ideal for different climates. The coating is not afraid of cold and strong winds, it normally tolerates the accumulation of a snow cap and does not melt under the hot sun. But flexible shingles are very demanding on the quality of the base on which they will be laid.
The rafter system must necessarily have a counter-lattice, on top of which a solid base plane is drawn. It is better to use plywood for these purposes, although OSB is also suitable, but only under the condition of sufficiently low humidity (less than 20% by weight).
It is imperative to leave a seam of 3-5 mm between the cover sheets to compensate for linear expansion. All wooden parts of the rafter system must be pre-treated with antiseptic agents..
Please note that shingles are only installed on pitched roofs with a slope of at least 11 °.
Pay attention to the problem of moisture accumulation in the roofing cake: if the shingles are installed correctly, moisture from the atmosphere will not flow, but condensation may form due to temperature differences. Therefore, the use of diffusion membranes and vapor barriers is mandatory. When installing a vapor barrier, do not forget to fasten the joints of the canvases with counter battens.
Features of laying bituminous tiles
Roofing works with shingles are carried out in a clear dry period, because even slight precipitation at any stage of installation is unacceptable.
Some manufacturers allow roofing at negative temperatures, but only in compliance with a number of regulations:
- Before installation, the tiles are stored at room temperature for 3 days..
- Roofing adhesive is constantly heated.
- It is required to heat the self-adhesive part of the shingle and the previous row of shingles with a hot air gun.
- Installation of the roof in severe frost is possible only if there is a greenhouse.
For mechanical fastening of the tiles, galvanized nails with a wide head and ruffle are used. When hammering, the nail must go through the wood.
Step-by-step installation of bituminous tiles
Underlay carpet flooring
The device of the bituminous roof begins with the flooring of the lining carpet: the edge of the roll is nailed to the ridge end and the canvas is rolled down, guiding along the wind edge of the roof. At the bottom, the canvas needs to be leveled, pulled and nailed, cut off the excess, leaving an overlap of 3-4 centimeters.
Laying of subsequent canvases is performed with an overlap to the width of the self-adhesive end, from which, after fixing the carpet, remove the protective film. If there are valleys on the roof, the installation of the carpet begins with them. The first carpet is rolled along the entire valley.
Then, on top, with an overlap of 15 centimeters, a carpet is laid from the slopes, the joint is connected with bituminous glue. All ends of the roof are upholstered with metal cornice strips, while excess carpet must be folded inward.
Before laying the tiles, you need to roll out along the valleys a special carpet to match the color of the main coating, straighten it and glue it, nail the edges with nails.
Tiling begins with eaves. Ridge shingles are applied to the strip flush or with an indentation of 1–2 cm, fixed with bitumen glue, if necessary, nailed above the middle.
This is followed by the laying of ordinary tiles: the first row is laid with an indent of 1–2 centimeters from the lower edge of the ridge tile and nailed so that they pass through its upper edge. Shaped projections should cover the joints of the ridge layer.
Each new row is nailed in such a way that the upper end of the previous row is also attached. The lower curly projections of the tile cover the joints of the previous row and the head of the nails.
In valleys, the shingles must be cut at a distance of 10 centimeters from the bottom and carefully glue them to the valley carpet with bitumen glue. At the wind ends of the roof, the shingles are cut flush and glued to the metal strips. Top rows of shingles on both slopes are also trimmed to form a joint without overlap.
The shingles of the ridge tile are divided into shorter lengths for laying the ridge ridge. Segments are nailed, orienting with an adhesive strip across the ridge. Each subsequent segment should cover the previous one, hiding the nail heads under it.
All connections, for example, with a chimney and vertical pediments, are made from segments of the valley carpet. The upper edge should be at least 30 centimeters, it is fixed with nails. The lower edge of the mating is securely glued to the tiles. Mating with ventilation ducts is performed using special cuffs, which are glued and sealed on both sides.
Operational repair and maintenance
The bituminous roof does not need special maintenance, but, like any coating, it needs proper care.
In winter, you need to clean the roof of snow with a plastic shovel, but do not touch the crust of the ice, so as not to damage the coating. In spring and autumn, it will not be superfluous to thoroughly clean the roof of dust; you can use a car wash. In summer, the roof needs a thorough inspection for defects and damage..
If any are found, repairs should be started immediately. Small cracks and delamination are repaired using a bitumen sealant. Torn or partially destroyed shingles must be replaced:
- Raise the top row.
- Pull out the nails.
- Nail a new shingle.
- Glue all overlaps with a little bitumen glue.
Repair of a soft roof can only be carried out at a temperature of at least +5 ° C, walking on the roof should only be done in shoes with soft soles or barefoot.