- How to distribute gutters and pipes
- Calculation of materials
- Installation of gutters
- Fixing pipes
- Avoiding obstacles
The final touch in the arrangement of the roof is the installation of the drain, and it is desirable that it does a good job of the task, eliminating excessive moisture in the walls and the surrounding area. This material describes in detail the procedure from the choice of a suitable drain and up to a convenient plan of how to fix the gutter and pipe, once again without rearranging the ladder.
To install a drain from scratch you will need:
- Decide on the type of drain (manufacturer, material, color).
- Determine the configuration of gutters and risers and their distribution.
- Select the required size of the drain.
- Count the number of materials and purchase them.
- Mount the system.
In any hardware store, ready-made sets of gutters are presented, made of PVC or galvanized steel with a special coating, square or round section and a wide range of colors. These characteristics have to be selected in accordance with the type of roofing material, so that the gutter fits harmoniously into the overall picture. For now, it is enough to take with you from the store a brochure listing the elements of the drain you like and its brief description. But then you need to arm yourself with paper and a pencil..
Watercourse elements. 1. Chute. 2. Knee. 3. Trumpet. 4. Tee. 5. The corner of the gutter is external. 6. Gutter connector. 7. Internal corner of the gutter. 8. Funnel. 9. Gutter plug. 10. Bracket for drain pipe. 11. Elbow elbow
How to distribute gutters and pipes
To calculate the required materials, it is necessary to determine the number and positions of vertical downpipes (risers) and gutters that fit with an inclination to each riser.
A gutter is installed along the lower edge of each roof slope. With a roof length of up to 10 m, one riser with a funnel at the edge of the gutter is sufficient. For slopes 11–25 m long, the funnels are spread along two edges, and the slope of the gutter is formed in two directions approximately from the middle of the site. It is better to indicate the border at a point from which at least one funnel can be laid an integer number of gutters, given their length – three meters.
At a hipped roof or roll roof, you can bring the gutters from two adjacent sides of the roof into one funnel, however, the total length of the gutters, converging at one point over 20 m, should not be exceeded.
To bypass roofs of complex shapes, for example, in a building with an extension, when the roof planes converge with an internal corner, it is advisable to place the riser in the corner without using corner elements. If the corner is involved, then the length of the gutter “around the corner”, when viewed from the funnel, should not be more than 10 m.
Based on the voiced rules, on the plan of the house “top view” points of gutters and funnels, as well as gutters, are distributed, marking areas with the same slope. If possible, you should distribute the elements so that you have to cut the gutters less and use whole elements of three meters.
It is important to consider the design of the funnel in the gutter kit used. This can be an overhead element that is attached to a regular gutter with a hole cut in the bottom, or a special tee, to which the gutters are connected using connectors and a riser pipe.
The minimum permissible slope is established by a set of rules and is equal to 1 mm for each meter of running gutter. Manufacturers, however, recommend a slope of 3-5 mm per meter for PVC gutter systems and 2-4 mm per meter for metal structures..
The outer edge of the gutter is 2–3 cm below the roof plane. The edge of the roofing material that forms the roof canopy must be above the middle of the gutter. So there will be less risk that the fall of the snow mass and icing in the winter will break the chute..
The vertical pipe is lowered so that the lower edge of the elbow directed towards the drainage funnel or the outer edge of the blind area is at a height of 20-30 cm.
Calculation of materials
The cross-sectional area of the gutter is set according to SP17.13330.2011 equal to 1.5 cm2 1 m2 spare the roof. Having distributed the gutters, it is enough to take the length of the largest section, multiply by the width of the roof slope and calculate the cross-sectional area of the gutter. You will have to choose from sets of round or square section. The area will have to be clarified in the technical documentation, since in the store they are sorted mainly only by width (90-150 mm) and height.
To find out the cross-section of riser pipes, you need to calculate the average annual rainfall falling on the roof of the building according to the instructions of SP 32.13330.2012, and then select the appropriate pipe diameter in accordance with the requirements of SP 30.13330 in terms of throughput from the table for ventilated risers.
You can use the tables provided by the manufacturers of drainage systems, where the effective roof area is calculated first, and then the appropriate size of the system is selected, depending on the value of the average annual rainfall in the area of \ u200b \ u200bthe location of the building.
Gutter system Capacity, l / s Drainage area, m2 100/75 1.91 70 100/90 1.91 75 125/90 30.9 115 125/105 4.78 179 150/105 4.78 185 150/125 7.49 280
Effective roof area: S = (A + B / 2) C, where A is the width of the horizontal projection of the roof slope, B is the height, and C is the length of the roof.
When the standard size of the drain has already been determined, you can proceed to the selection of kit elements.
On a riser along a straight wall you will need:
- funnel gutter;
- two elbows for approaching the wall;
- one knee for the lower elbow;
- two fasteners for each pipe and one for the funnel of the gutter.
The upper bends are connected by a connecting pipe with seals, and the main part of the drain is formed by straight pipe sections. To bypass the protrusions on the wall, you will need an additional four elbows and two connecting pipes.
At the junction of the pipe and gutter, you need a tee or a piece of 300-400 mm long with a hole in the bottom for an overhead funnel.
Gutters are connected to the tee. The number of chutes has already been determined at the distribution stage. The lengths should be arranged to obtain the number of complete gutters with a minimum of waste.
The ends of the gutter are closed with plugs. For hipped roof or roll roofing, all gutters can be combined with corner pieces instead of plugs. The number of selected elements is selected accordingly.
By the number of joints between the gutters and with a tee / funnel, the number of connectors with a seal is calculated.
Each individual element of the gutter is fastened with brackets at the ends, retreating from the edge by 150 mm, and fastenings are distributed along the rest of the length at a distance of no more than 600 mm from each other, which corresponds to the standard pitch of the rafters of a pitched roof.
Six brackets with a basic pitch of 500 mm are required to fix the standard 3-meter gutter. Each tee requires two fasteners on both sides separately.
Installation of gutters
The best option is to fix it with brackets on the cornice board, but if it is not there or the board is not designed for an additional load, then the brackets should be fixed to the lathing and rafters before laying the roofing material or to the walls. All types of fasteners can be alternated if necessary. The set of available fasteners should be clarified in advance in the selected drainage system.
- On the side where the gutter will be laid at the highest point, on the opposite edge from the funnel, fix the bracket so that the central axis along the gutter after installation is strictly under the roof edge, and the outer edge is lowered below the roof plane by 20-30 mm, the distance to the end of the roof should be no more than 150 mm. Tie a long piece of string or twine to the installed mount.
- Mark the tee position with two vertical lines.
- The second bracket should be fixed 150 mm away from the tee mark. Lower it in relation to the first bracket to maintain the desired slope. Tie a thread from the first fastener, marking the required level for distributing the remaining fasteners.
- Fix fasteners for tee and funnel.
- Distribute and fix intermediate brackets according to the position of the gutter joints.
- Start the installation of the elements from the tee and funnel and then all the elements of the gutter.
The gutters must be laid with a gap of 10-15 mm to compensate for thermal expansion and are fixed with connectors. When all the elements of the gutter are fixed, you can proceed to the installation of vertical risers.
The edge of the gutter is closed with a sealed plug
There are two main types of fasteners: brick and timber wall. In the first case, a single-point anchorage is meant, in the second – a V-shaped base plate with two anchorage points spread apart. In both cases, the pipe is fixed with a clamp..
For anchoring, it is necessary to pre-mark on the wall the places for drilling holes for fastenings:
- a knee that approaches the wall from the side of the funnel of the gutter;
- two fasteners for each pipe segment, retreating from the ends by about 150-200 mm;
- lower knee that completes the drain.
Next, the pipe branch is assembled from the tee to the very bottom, putting on the socket of the next part to the already fixed.
In the case of a V-shaped mount, first a clamp with a bracket is put on each pipe and elbow, a vertical drainage system is assembled on the wall, drilling holes in the wall and fixing the mounts with self-tapping screws.
To compensate for thermal expansion, the socket connection is not made to the stop, leaving a gap of 10-15 mm. In order not to miss this moment, it is advisable to check the depth of the socket in advance and set the appropriate marks along the pipes.
It is not necessary to use O-rings or sealant to connect pipes in a straight section of the path – only when connecting tees.
More details about the installation process of ready-made drainage systems in the video:
To avoid obstacles along the riser, use bends with a turn of 30 ° and connectors between them.
If this is a ledge in the wall, then four elbows and two connecting pipes are required. It is more convenient to first assemble two elbows and a connector fixed along the ledge, and then connect to the upper part of the drainage system and continue the installation of the lower section.
If a “step” is formed on the wall, only two knees are required. It is easier to fix the pipes in vertical sections and then mount the elbow.
It is better to take the distance from the knee to the angle of the protrusion equal to approximately 1/3 of the pipe diameter or equal to the extension of the used brackets.
To avoid obstacles along the gutter route, corner elements for the inner and outer turns are used. Elements, like the gutter itself, should be fastened taking into account the general slope, bypassing the edge of the roof along the contour, and not in a straight line between the extreme positions.
After installation, check the operation of the drain by supplying water under pressure to the extreme upper points of the gutters. It should flow evenly along the entire length of the channel towards the funnel and down the pipes..