Until the 17th century, the production of Russian cast iron, as the most demanded product of the ferrous metallurgy at that time in Russia and the world, was carried out in small volumes. The founder of the production of ferrous metals in industrial volumes was the Dutchman A. Vinnius, under whose leadership the Gorodishchensky factories were created near Tula. Winnius’ enterprises produced the most demanded products of that time – squeaks, guns and cannonballs for them.
The reform process carried out by Tsar Peter I also affected the metallurgical industry, as a result, Russia in the XVIII took the first place in the world in the production of pig iron. A significant role in this was played by the cheapness of serf labor and significant reserves of timber. In Russia, 253 privately owned metallurgical plants were created, the main production was carried out in the Urals. The largest industrialists were the merchant families of the Demidovs and Yakovlevs, the Batashovs and Osokins, as well as the Mosolovs..
During the existence of the Soviet Union, the largest metallurgical plants were created, which to this day produce the main products of ferrous metal products in Russia.
The largest Russian producer of ferrous metals is today JSC “Severstal”, with a capacity of 15.5 million tons per year. The second place is taken by OJSC “Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Plant”, which capacity is 10 million tons of products per year. In third place is OJSC Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant, its annual capacity is 9 million tons. Today there are more than 50 operating enterprises in Russia that produce ferrous metal products.
Main types of ferrous metal products
The classification of ferrous metal products is associated with the technique of its manufacture and its purpose. The main types of ferrous metal products: sheet and section, which is subdivided into simple and shaped.
Sheet metal produced in strips, sheets, strips and rolls. Hot-rolled metal sheets produced in accordance with GOST 19903-74 and 14637-89 are subdivided into thin (up to 4 mm thick) and thick (more than 4 mm thick). The thickness of cold-rolled sheet metal, according to GOST 19904-90, may have different thicknesses.
High-quality simple black metal products includes rebar and circles, squares, wire rod and strips. Construction reinforcement is used for reinforcing concrete products, conventional and prestressed, as well as for the construction of monolithic structures. Metallurgical enterprises produce rod rebar (hot rolled) and wire rebar (cold drawn). For concrete products, prestressed and non-prestressing reinforcement is used. The armature has two main types of profile – smooth (class A1) and periodic (classes A2-A6), length from 6 to 12 m, diameter – from 6 to 80 mm (depending on the class). The main standard for construction fittings is GOST 5781-82.
Circle of steel has a circular cross section and a bar shape. Serves as a blank for the production of pipes and parts for mechanical engineering. A steel circle of various diameters is produced, from 5 to 270 mm, according to GOST 2590-88. Several types of steel are used for the manufacture of a circle, from ordinary carbon steel to special grades of steel. The length of a circle of simple steels is from 2 to 12 m, a high-alloy circle is from 1 to 6 m.
Steel square hot-smoked and hexagon hot-smoked are manufactured in accordance with GOST 2591-88 with sides, edge sizes from 63 to 200 mm and lengths from 2 to 6 m. Different grades of steel are used in the production of a steel hexagon. The accuracy of the produced steel hexagons is high (marking B) and normal (marking B).
Bar, having a standard diameter of 5 to 9 mm is called wire rod. Wire rod of black metal products is intended mainly for reinforcing concrete products, along with reinforcement. It is of sufficient length and is produced by rolling through crimping shafts, supplied in coils weighing about 150 kg. The raw material for the wire rod is carbon steel GOST 380-94. The main standard for wire rod of black metal is GOST 2590-88 and GOST 30136-94. Steel strip is produced in two types: forged (tool) and hot-rolled in accordance with GOST 4405-75. Hot-rolled steel strip of general purpose is produced with a width of 11-200 mm and a thickness of 4-40 mm in accordance with GOST 103-76. Delivery is made in rolls of the required length, the weight of one roll should not exceed 60 kg.
High-quality shaped black metal products are produced from simple high-quality metal products. The range includes beams and channels, hexagons, angles and I-beams.
Beams are produced in two types – “T” -shaped or one-tee and “H” -shaped or I-beams. Standard production I-beams and one-T beams have a length of 4 to 12 m. The defining dimension for a beam is the distance between the edges of its outer flanges. Example of marking: “Beam 24M”, i.e. 24 cm – the length of the segment between the edges of the outer shelves. The smallest standard inter-shelf distance for beams is 10 cm, the largest is 100 cm. Beams are manufactured in accordance with GOST 535-88, GOST 26020-83, GOST 8239-89 and GOST 19425-74. Channel is a product of high-quality U-shaped metal-roll, bent (equally and unequal) and hot-rolled. According to GOST 535-88, hot-rolled channel is made from ordinary carbon steel, from low-alloy carbon steel and structural steel. The bent channel is made of steel in accordance with GOST 11474-76, from ordinary cold-smoked and hot-smoked steel, from low-alloy carbon and structural steel.
Channel has a number indicating its height in cm, they produce a channel of standard length from 2 to 12 m. The steel hexagon has equal edges, it is produced with a diameter of 8 to 100 mm. Depending on the manufacturing method, steel hexagons can be forged, hot-rolled and calibrated. They have a subdivision according to the chemical composition of the steel from which they are made, depending on this, there are high-quality hexagons and high-quality ones. The length of standard hex rods ranges from 2 to 6 meters. The standard for the production of hot-smoked steel hexagons is set in accordance with GOST 2879-88, for calibrated ones – in accordance with GOST 8660-78.
Steel corner has an L-shaped section. It is produced on a hot section rolling mill from steel billets. The steel corner is produced in two types – equal and equal-flange, of which the equal-flange steel corner is most in demand. The standard length of the corners is from 4 to 12 m. The marking of the steel angle contains the dimensions of its shelves and the thickness of the metal in mm, the unequal angle will have three numerical values in the marking, and the equal-angle one – two. Bent steel corners are produced from carbon steel hot-smoked or cold-smoked, bent on profile bending mills. Depending on the grade of steel, steel corners are produced of normal quality and extra strong, made of low-alloy steel. Standard for equal-flange hot-rolled steel angle GOST 8509-93, for unequal hot-rolled angle GOST 8510-86, for equal-flange cold-bent GOST 19771-93, unequal cold-bent GOST 19772-93. If the corner is made of steel of normal quality, then GOST 380-88 is used, the high-strength corner is produced in accordance with GOST 19281-89, while low-alloy steel of 09G2S grade is used.
Steel I-beam It is produced in two ways: hot-rolled I-beams are produced by rolling a steel billet on section mills using the hot rolling method. The thickness of the hot-rolled I-beam does not exceed 60 mm. I-beams more than 60 mm thick are produced by welding from hot-smoked steel sheet (GOST 23118-99). Standard length of steel I-beams – from 4 to 12 m.
I-beams are rolled in accordance with GOST 535-88. Hot-smoked I-beams with parallel shelf edges are made in accordance with GOST 26020-83 or STO ASChM 20-93. An I-beam with a slope of the edges is produced in accordance with GOST 8239-89. Steel I-beams, special purpose (marking M and C), are made in accordance with GOST 19425-74. Extra strong I-beams, the material for which is low-alloy steel, are produced in accordance with GOST 19281-89.
Steel pipes black high-quality metal, several types are produced: round (seamless and welded), others (profile and with a variable section).
Steel seamless pipes, g / d (hot-deformed) are made from alloy and carbon steel in accordance with GOST 8731-78. L / D pipes are produced in standard lengths from 4 to 12.5 m, diameters from 5 to 140 mm. They produce thin-walled (thickness from 0.4 mm) and toasted pipes (thickness up to 12 mm).
Steel seamless pipes, cold-smoked (cold-worked) are produced from carbon and high-carbon steel, alloyed and high-alloyed, according to GOST 8734-75. Standard lengths of pipes x / d from 4 to 12.5 m, diameter from 5 to 140 mm. Welded steel pipes vgp (water and gas) are produced at specialized pipe rolling mills from strip, in accordance with the conditions of GOST 380-88, GOST 1050-88. Vgp pipes for normal operating conditions are made of steel grades st1-3 and st1-3 / 10. The standard length of the vgp pipes is from 4 to 12 m. The thickness of the metal and the inner diameter of the vgp pipes are set by GOST 3262-75. VGP produces pipes of standard diameters from 15 mm to maximum 219 mm.
Square shaped electrowelded pipe produced according to GOST 8639-82 and GOST 13663-86. The produced pipe has a wall from 15 to 200 mm, length from 4.5 to 12 m.
Steel pipes with variable cross-section are made of steel 30HGSA according to TU 14-159-241-93. Such pipes consist of several elbows that merge into one another without joints. Standard steel pipes with variable cross-section have an outer diameter of the first elbow of 51 mm, the second 44 mm, the third 35 and the last 25.5 mm, the length is from 5.6 m to 6.1 m.
Black metal rolling – scope
Today, ferrous metal products are used in all areas of our life. Sheet metal is in demand in shipbuilding and aircraft construction, mechanical engineering, as the main material for the production of steel section shaped metal rolling, tool production, pipe production.
Sectional shaped black metal-roll is an important material for modern construction; it is used in the production of reinforced concrete products and monolithic concreting, the construction of civil and industrial buildings, in machine tools, mechanical engineering, the construction of bridges and large construction projects, the oil and defense complex.
Steel pipes are used in overpasses for various purposes – for water and gas pipelines, as well as for oil products. Pipes are constantly needed in mechanical engineering, furniture production and agriculture.
Despite the constant improvement of polymer-based products, ferrous metal products are still highly important due to their quality characteristics – reliability and long-term operation, processing and repair capabilities.