- Advantages of exterior wall finishing with facade slabs
- Types of facade panels on the market
- Metal panels – single layer and combined
- Thermal panels with facade tiles
- Plastic facade panels
- Fiber cement panels
- Wood based panels
- Other information about facade panels
- Manufacturers and prices
Facade panels for exterior decoration are installed for various purposes: for a decorative effect, to increase thermal insulation, and to protect against mechanical damage. Let’s talk about the types, installation methods, manufacturers and prices – the main parameters for choosing panels for use in individual construction.
Why are facade panels attractive and why are they willingly used in private and civil construction? How to find the optimal material for all tasks? First, we note the merits of this architectural technique, and then consider and evaluate the possible options.
Advantages of exterior wall finishing with facade slabs
If the wall material is decorative enough, an excellent heat insulator, is not afraid of scratches and chips, then additional finishing is not required. But when there is a need for improvement in design or consumer performance, panels will help solve many problems..
Their common to all types of dignity:
- a variety of decorative solutions;
- resistance to rain, wind, weather changes;
- an easy way to update old buildings;
- the ability to insulate walls or make a ventilated facade;
- additional protection of the base;
- the ability to fix wall defects.
However, each of the types of panels, differing in design and material, has its own advantages, disadvantages, installation recommendations and price range..
Types of facade panels on the market
You can classify panels by parameters:
- design: imitation “like a brick”, “like a tile”, “like a wild stone”, “like a polished stone”, “like a tree”, multi-colored, “like a decorative plaster”;
- monolithic or combined;
- type of main material;
- shape: rectangular, close to square, narrow;
- the presence of a locking profile, fastening methods.
Design solutions can include one or more finishes. Sometimes the contrast of smooth and convex textures, dark and light shades, highlighting of windows, cornices, columns, small color or textured accents looks more impressive.
Metal panels – single layer and combined
Such facade panels are made from aluminum alloys and steel. Aluminum are lighter, but steel, with the same thickness, are more durable – they do not deform upon impact. The outer surface of metal panels can have a polymer coating on a different basis – polyester, pural, plastisol, can be painted with powder paint, decorated with natural stone chips.
By themselves, these panels do not increase the thermal insulation characteristics of the walls, but they can serve as a basis for the installation of thermal insulation, the organization of ventilated facades. In the case of combined panels, a thermal insulation layer is added to the outer metal layer – for example, made of foam. Popular aluminum and steel composite panels, consisting of two layers of metal with a layer of plastic or mineral wool. They have greater rigidity and durability, heat and sound insulation properties, are available in all colors.
The installation of metal facade panels is most often carried out on a crate or special guides using nails or special fasteners – clamps (stationary and sliding). Sliding clamps are used on large-sized panels, given the relatively high thermal expansion of metals. The design of the joining edges provides sufficient sealing, but experienced builders recommend joining the panels horizontally for greater reliability.
Thermal panels with facade tiles
Modern finishing material, thermal panels – beautiful, durable, moisture resistant, easy to cut with a grinder, perfectly insulate, inert to mold and mildew, can be mounted on their own.
Clinker tiles, which are burnt red clay, make up the outer layer superimposed on a base made of polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam or expanded polystyrene. Exterior tiles, in addition to clinker, can be porcelain stoneware or glazed ceramics. Large-sized porcelain stoneware products can be used independently – without insulation. In this case, they do not belong to the category of thermal panels and are mounted on ventilated facades..
Facade thermal panels in terms of geometry and purpose are: straight, corner and additional, differ in the thickness of the heat-insulating layer (30-100 mm). The number of layers of material is 2-3 (they can have a reinforcing layer of pressed chips or stone chips on the back side). Docking of panels with each other: tongue-groove. Both straight and rounded walls can be finished with this material..
- orderly on a solid or sparse lathing, metal guides – using special dowels or self-tapping screws and embedded sleeves;
- on a solution with fastening with hardware (requires alignment of the walls).
The joints of the slabs and the joints between the tiles (if necessary) are recommended to be additionally processed with frost-resistant grout. If the surface of the slab does not need additional grouting, the joints can be insulated with a sealant or gently foamed. Due to the seamless design and installation, cold bridges do not form, atmospheric moisture does not have access to the walls.
Plastic facade panels
Such products can be one- and two-layer, where the second layer is foamed insulation. A beautiful material, with a rich palette, with imitation of wood or stone, lightweight, strong enough, inexpensive compared to other materials. Can be installed independently. The main disadvantage is flammability. It is better to place the barbecue area away from the walls of the house. Some panels may have increased fragility in severe frosts. The most common representatives of this category are polypropylene and vinyl panels..
Installation is carried out on a prepared surface (cleaned and leveled). Wooden walls need to be treated with antifungal agents.
If the panels are single-layer, if additional insulation is required, you need to think over the crate, which provides the possibility of laying heat-insulating materials. Install a vapor barrier and / or wind barrier membrane. Installation of plastic panels is carried out on lathing or guide profiles made of aluminum.
Fiber cement panels
Fiber cement panels (sometimes called Japanese) are also used for facades, some of which should be finished with plaster or enamel for outdoor use to reduce hygroscopicity. The products include wood or artificial fiber (fiber), cement, quartz sand and mica.
It is an environmentally friendly, frost-resistant, non-combustible material 14–35 mm thick. Due to the inclusion of fibers, the strength of the panel increases, and the content of many microscopic air bubbles or structural hollowness enhances its thermal insulation properties.
Installation of panels is carried out on a metal crate and may provide for the installation of an additional layer of thermal insulation. Mounting elements: nails, screws, clamps, rivets. Seams are foamed, treated with sealant or grout. When performing all work, it is necessary to protect the respiratory organs, eyes and hands, and cut the panels in the open air.
Wood based panels
Wooden panels often repeat the geometry of the lining or natural timber. Surface color can vary from carbon-graphite to almost white, imitating expensive and rare wood.
A relatively new material based on wood flour is a wood-polymer composite that combines the advantages of all the components that make up its composition. It burns reluctantly, resists mold, is insect-proof, weakly fade in the sun, does not leave splinters.
The processing of WPC panels is similar to the processing of natural wood. Fastening of wooden panels is carried out in warm weather, according to the technology of a ventilated facade on a lathing – a wooden or thick-walled metal profile (galvanized steel or aluminum) using stainless hardware and clips.
Panels made of wood fibers, pressed at high pressure and temperature, also have the advantages of natural wood and are devoid of some of its disadvantages. Their outer surface is covered with natural veneer, which requires a fairly careful attitude in terms of mechanical stress.
Other information about facade panels
In addition to those listed, there are panels made of natural stone, glass panels and others that are too expensive and difficult to install to be widely used in private housing construction. Sandwich panels, on the other hand, are used more often in the construction of secondary buildings, for example, garages. Moreover, such panels can be the main, load-bearing material of the walls..
Separately, you need to pay attention to the basement panels. Higher requirements are imposed on their mechanical strength. Often this material is used to trim the corners of the building..
Attention! When purchasing everything for the facade, take into account the area, the number of corners, the step of the lathing, additional materials – heat and vapor barrier, plaster, grout, sealant. Buy everything with a 10-15% margin for cutting, losses. Prepare the assembly tool.
Manufacturers and prices
In addition to assessing the performance and preferences in terms of decor, users, when choosing, take into account the brand and price of facade panels.
The table shows brands and their products that regularly fall into ratings and TOPs in popularity among consumers..
Table. Rating manufacturers and prices (as of May 2017)
Brand name Country Panel type Price, rub / piece. Area, m2 Docke-R Germany-Russia Polymer – for brick, stone, clinker tiles 350-530 0.37-0.45 (useful) FineBer Russia Polypropylene, PVC – for brick, stone, slate 400-560 0.49-0.52 “Alta-Profile” Russia Polypropylene – for stone, brick, clinker and glazed tiles 390-520 0.56-0.53 Holzplast Germany Polypropylene – for brick, stone, slate, tiles 425-510 0.476 (useful) VOX Poland Vinyl MAX-3 – colored, wood grain
KERRAFRONT – rigid PVC + foamed – wood look
Polymer Solid – under brick, stone
Nichiha Japan Fiber cement – a huge selection of designs
EX series, 14 mm
W series, 16 mm
Nailite USA Polypropylene – stone, brick, wood 830-900 0.465-0568 Termosit Russia Thermal panels with clinker tiles (Poland)
with clinker tiles (Russia)
“DKM-facades” Russia Aluminum composite 900 1.0 ALCOTEK® Russia Aluminum composite