- What is lining
- Technological features of wooden lining
- A few words about the nuances of lining installation
- How do lining
- How to choose a lining
- Plain or eurolining
- Choosing a lining by size
- Which wood is the best lining
- Lining profile
- Classification of lining by grades
- How to distinguish low quality lining
- How much is lining
The focus of our attention is lining, as the most successful solution for cladding of building structures. Consider the features of using this type of natural wood cladding and learn how to choose the right materials.
Facing the choice of “plaster or cladding”, we increasingly prefer dry finishing methods and multilayer structures, which have many technological advantages over solid wood and monoliths. Now there are many interesting finishing materials created artificially, but natural wood cladding is a classic of the genre, and every year it only becomes more popular. Even in the third millennium, there is no equivalent replacement for wood – beautiful, absolutely environmentally friendly, easy to process. There are not very many ways to decorate a home with the most natural material – these are various decorative boards, edged / unedged board, lining. However, the latter will be perhaps the most practical, effective and profitable option..
What is lining
Firms that are engaged in timber processing, in addition to building lumber (logs, boards and beams), among their products, distinguish the so-called “profiled molding”, which includes lining. Clapboard is a thin edged board (from 7 to 20 mm) with planed surfaces, designed for sheathing various planes. The width of each plank is also small – an average of 90 to 150 mm. Once upon a time, the skeletons of railway cars were sheathed with a thin narrow board, sometimes with selected quarters or without them. Hence this mysterious name “lining”.
The main distinguishing feature of modern lining is the presence of a groove and a ridge on each lamella, which allow quick and easy assembly of the facing. According to this principle, plastic, MDF, aluminum finish panels can be called clapboard. The raw material for the production of real lining can be any wood available to the manufacturer, there are no specific restrictions. In our country, the most widespread are “native” varieties: pine, linden, alder, larch, oak.
Technological features of wooden lining
First of all, wood itself carries several useful qualities, which is a unique material with:
- high sound and heat insulation characteristics;
- plasticity (easily processed and repaired, you can get by with a hand tool);
- low coefficient of thermal expansion.
A number of advantages are provided by the lining configuration. The piece character of the facing elements, the small width and thickness of the lamellas have a positive effect on the weight. A lightweight and compact lining can be easily assembled by one master. Supporting structures are not overloaded, there is no need to assemble powerful subsystems.
The lining fits into each other by 5–8 mm. The tongue-and-groove method of joining the panels allows assembling the skin, in which there are initially no gaps in the plane, and they do not appear even with temperature and humidity changes. That is why clapboard sheathing, in addition to living quarters, can be used in steam rooms and on the street..
Extraordinary editing gives something. The main feature is the free mount. Wooden lamellas are fixed not through the body (and not through the petal, like, for example, plastic), but with the help of metal clamps (their size is selected individually for a particular type of lining), which only press the lower shelf of the lock to the base. This ensures the unhindered expansion of the casing elements along the length. On properly lined surfaces, cracks, cracks, “house” -type ups and other deformations are not formed. It is very important that all fastening elements are hidden and the surface remains exceptionally clean. The cleats are overlapped with each subsequent panel, so there is no need to use any plugs or putty.
A few words about the nuances of lining installation
As a rule, for clapboard cladding on the main surfaces, wooden frames are assembled with a distance between the bearing profiles from 40 to 60 cm.Also, the subsystem can be made of galvanized profiles, only for fastening cleats instead of nails (copper or anodized ones are used for wet rooms), you will have to use rivets or self-tapping screws for metal with a small head, type LN 9 mm.
The direction of the lamellas can be either vertical or horizontal. In the first case, the expansion grooves on the back side drain moisture well (very good for steam rooms), and with horizontal claddings with a groove downwards, moisture entering the lock is excluded (excellent for facade cladding). Note that a wooden lining, assembled horizontally, can be used to sew partitions, both wooden and metal. Sometimes the walls of frame structures are revetted with it directly along the racks. A good decorative effect can be obtained if the lining is oriented diagonally, although difficulties arise with trimming and planning an economical consumption of material.
Forcing panels are recommended to be installed with a compensating gap to the enclosing structures (up to 10 mm). After installation, the inner, outer corners and abutments are closed with wooden additional elements. Also for these purposes, jute, hemp or linen rope is used, which goes very well with wood, but also helps to reliably seal technological gaps, as it perfectly repeats various curved surfaces. The rope is especially good if the lining is adjacent to a log house or its imitation – a blockhouse.
How do lining
If we want to choose the lining consciously, learn how to store and use it correctly, then we need to understand what tasks the manufacturers face, in what ways they are solved.
At the first stage, the log is dismissed onto an edged board. In most cases, the trunk is cross-cut, but the highest quality products are obtained by radial sawing (from the center to the edge, perpendicular to the annual rings). Radial cut products have the same texture and tone, they are the strongest and most stable in geometry.
Then the boards go to the drying chambers, where, under the influence of high temperature, pressure and steam, the wood is kept for 8-12 days. During this time, the workpieces lose weight, become stronger, more resistant to biological contamination. The moisture content of the boards is forcibly brought to about 8-10 percent, then it can rise to no more than 15-16%.
The next step is gouging. Machines with a large number of cutters operating on four sides create the required profile of the finished product. The front surface is formed, a spike (comb) and a groove are cut. On the back side of the lamellas, as a rule, longitudinal grooves are cut, which serve to compensate for thermal expansion, moisture removal during vertical installation, ventilation of the back surface of the cladding.
Now the lining is trimmed and sorted. Depending on the existing defects (below we will consider the assortment in more detail), it is divided into several stacks. At this stage, producers can cut out non-business, damaged areas from the lamellas, obtaining products of a higher grade, but of a shorter length. Usually on sale you can find lining with a length of 30 cm to 3 meters. Long lamellas are used for cladding walls and ceilings, and it makes sense to acquire short planks for filing various structural elements with a small area – for example, a roof overhang.
Most manufacturers pack the sorted lining in a heat-shrinkable polymer film, eight to ten lamellas per pack. So they manage to maintain the specified humidity of the products even during long-term storage. By the way, to ensure ventilation, the ends of the packages are not closed..
How to choose a lining
Plain or eurolining
The lining of the Soviet image now suits very few people. Wood with a moisture content of 20-25 percent, wide lamellas about 20 mm thick, a tiny lock (which often diverges), unstable geometry (panels are crooked, locks are poorly assembled), a fleecy surface, the presence of knots … The main problem is quality, but it is also backward. configuration of a conventional lining. Therefore, when in our country they began to sell euro lining, it immediately fell in love with developers and contractors.
Euro lining is a high quality product, which is produced on technological imported equipment in accordance with European standards such as DIN 68-126. This lining differs literally in all respects, it is more difficult and more expensive to manufacture, but more practical and durable.
The section of the euro lining is more complex and well thought out. Firstly, its spike is larger and reaches 8–10 mm, which makes it possible to prevent the formation of cracks even with large temperature and humidity movements. Secondly, there are ventilation / compensating grooves on the back. Thirdly, the standard thickness of the panels is the optimal 12.5 mm, and their visible width is 88 (total with the groove – 96). Fourth, several profile options are available to the consumer.
The requirements for surface quality for Euro lining are much higher. The front surface is smooth, even if there are live knots, they are well processed. Special attention is paid to the clarity of the processing of the elements of the lock – the groove and the ridge, they are easily and tightly joined.
Compared to conventional lining, euro products are forced to dry. The finished product has a moisture content of 10-15 percent, which excludes the appearance of deformations and biological damage during storage, installation and operation.
Euro lining is sorted into several categories (at least four), depending on the quality. It takes into account both wood defects and technological defects received by the product during production..
Choosing a lining by size
In this case, we should be interested in length, width, thickness. When choosing the length of the lining, it is necessary to be guided by the dimensions of the sheathed planes so that the waste is as small as possible. This is not difficult, since the lining is sold in lengths in 10 cm increments, while there is an opportunity to purchase products from 30 cm to 6 meters. Keep in mind that even the highest quality lining may require trimming the edges..
The narrower the lining, the more stable it is, wide lining is more prone to deformation, it is less resistant to shock loads. To achieve a decorative effect, sometimes lining of different widths is used on the same plane, often in random order.
The lining with a thickness of 12.5 mm turns out to be light, it works normally indoors. For cladding structures on the street, or if the lining presses a thick layer of insulation, it is recommended to purchase thicker slats of 15–20 mm, as they are stronger and stiffer. However, you will have to pay more for reliability, because the processor pays for timber by volume.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the lining spliced along the length. It is milled from a board, which consists of several sections selected according to the type of sawing and pattern, the length of which is not the same – on average from 150 mm to 750 mm. The connection of the elements is carried out on a microthorn, with glue under pressure. The advantage of such a lining can be considered its stability, since the blank board has practically no tension – manufacturers can make lamellas up to 6 meters long. At the same time, according to all indicators, it can relate to the highest grade “Extra” without any compromises. The downside is the thickness of the spliced lining, which, for technological reasons, cannot be less than 15 mm. In addition, many consumers do not want to use it as a facing material for a steam room, as people are afraid of the release of harmful substances from the glue when heated..
Which wood is the best lining
We have already said that the lining can be made of any wood, and from this it will differ in appearance, durability, physical and mechanical characteristics and, of course, in price. When it comes to design, the approach is extremely subjective. But the working characteristics of the lining can be optimized if you buy products from the “right” wood for certain conditions. Coniferous and deciduous species are distinguished in principle.
The former contain a large amount of resin and essential oils that resist moisture and fungi well. It is the best choice for outdoor cladding. The pine tree has a beautiful varied pattern, it is durable, easy to process. Spruce lining is famous for its increased thermal insulation properties, but it can release resin for a long time, so it is not often used in sweating rooms here. However, in Germany and the Scandinavian countries, coniferous planks are often used for these purposes, however, ideally selected or deresined.
Alder, linden, larch are used for interior decoration and for cladding saunas and baths, as they do not emit resin. Basic hardwoods are less durable than pine, without special processing they are able to change color, get dirty, but they, having high porosity, heat up little and withstand very high temperatures. Oak is the strongest and most durable material. Birch can only be used in dry rooms, as it is afraid of moisture.
Modern woodworking equipment makes it possible to manufacture lining with different cross-sectional profiles. The shape of the faces, the configuration and size of the elements of the lock, the nature of the front and back surfaces may differ – all this, first of all, significantly affects the appearance of the faced planes, but leaves an imprint on the scope of application of the lining.
Traditional euro lining (due to the enlarged spike on the front side) after assembly forms pronounced seams. Its edges can be either angular – standard design, or rounded – this is the so-called softline profile, or “soft line”. It is believed that for a bath or sauna, softline will be more practical and safe. We emphasize once again that the euro lining always has ventilation grooves on the back surface.
There is a lining that does not form large seams, since the lamellas near the spike do not have a shelf-recess. This option can be combined with a rounded edge, such a lining is called “calm”. If the edge remains angular, then the cladding (naturally, if the lamellas are located horizontally) resembles a massive wall assembled from a profiled bar. This lining (as a rule, with an increased thickness – up to 25 mm) is positioned by some manufacturers as “imitation of timber”. It is actively used on facades.
An interesting solution is a double-sided lining. Its spike and groove are located in the center of the end faces, both lamella planes can be used as front ones, that is, at the time of installation, the master has the opportunity to choose a better texture or a better surface. The disadvantage of double-sided lining is the absence of ventilation slots, so it is not suitable for lining steam rooms.
The front surface of the lining is not always flat. It can also be subjected to shape milling – “landhouse”. The front part configuration ranges from a few simple panels to very complex spatial solutions. Optionally, you can purchase lining with the effect of carving, made by the hot stamping method.
Separately, we note the unusual profile of special-purpose lining – “blockhouse” and “American”, which are used mainly to create facades. The blockhouse imitates a rounded log (blockhouse), and the American woman imitates siding.
Classification of lining by grades
The assortment of the lining is a rather delicate topic. Manufacturers of molded sawn timber to determine the grade take as a basis different GOSTs or European standards such as DIN. But most often they develop their own specifications and are guided by their own criteria for determining quality..
Note that lining of various categories is produced on the same equipment, using the same technologies. The division of products into classes and grades is carried out after trimming, before packaging. Usually 4 grades of lining are distinguished, the main criteria are the presence of knots, cracks, resin pockets, blue, uneven.
The best quality lining is called “extra”, “premium”, “knotless”. Its panel is extremely smooth, roughness and unevenness are allowed only on the back side. No cracks or knots. Color abnormalities – back only.
Class “A” is characterized by the presence of small (about 1 cm in diameter) live knots, no more than one per running meter of the product. Cracks can be, but not through (sometimes manufacturers putty them with tinted compounds). Minor machining defects are allowed in invisible areas.
Class “B” can contain dark knots up to a third of the lamella width, their number is not limited. Such a lining can have short through cracks, traces of the core, open pockets (can be putty).
Class “C” is the lining that does not fall into other categories. Rotten and falling out knots, 30 cm (in length) through cracks and holes from knots, blue and traces of insect damage, are not easy on the front surface..
You may also come across a lining of class “D”, “AC”, “BC”, etc., in each case you need to consider the products on the spot. Naturally, the lowest category cannot be considered a finishing cladding; it makes sense to use it only as a rough filing. As for the other classes, everything is ambiguous here, since design issues are mainly considered, but there are no special differences in durability. For example, not everyone likes the faceless Premium lining, which has little texture and no knots..
How to distinguish low quality lining
Several hundred lining manufacturers work on the domestic market, the quality of their products does not always correspond to the current standards. As you can imagine, do not rely entirely on the variety designation. The only way not to be mistaken is to carefully examine the lining at the point of sale. What we pay attention to?
Packaging. The lining, which is sold in film, cannot be seen. The outer panels are always perfect, but inside there may be products of not very high quality. It will most likely not be possible to pull out the lamella from the inside, and you will not be allowed to unpack it. Advice: first buy a couple of packs “for trial” or negotiate with the seller about the return of the re-grading. Please note that some manufacturers or sellers use stretch film and cover the ends with it, which has a bad effect on the moisture content of the products..
Take a close look along the slat. A common problem is the curvature of the panel in the form of a saber, which is caused by a violation of production technology or improper storage. Even if it is possible to mount such a lamella, then over time, under the influence of tension, it will still come out of the lock. The lining in the form of a “helicopter” should definitely be rejected.
Feel the face with your fingertips, examine it under the side light. Our task is to detect waves that can be located across the board. Not suitable for decorative cladding lamellas in the form of a groove or similar in shape to a blockhouse.
Assess the condition of the groove and ridge. There should be no cracks, chips or knots here. Take a kleimer of the required size with you, install it on the shelf of the groove and slide it along it – sometimes there are waves, and the fasteners simply do not fit in several places. Try to connect several lamellas, they should not gather too tight.
Try to measure the actual moisture in the lining (15 degrees limit). Specialized outlets usually have the necessary tools.
How much is lining
Lining is sold most often by square meters, despite the fact that these lumber are considered molded. The market is mainly represented by products of domestic manufacturers that work on local raw materials, although exotic facings made of mahogany or Canadian cedar can also be ordered (a square of such pleasure will cost over two thousand rubles). Grade, type of wood, thickness and length of panels – all this objectively affects the price of the lining. The most inexpensive lining is made of pine, the price of which starts at about 170 rubles per square meter. Larch cladding costs from 400 rubles. The price of inexpensive linden products will be at least 500 rubles per m2. Alder category “A” costs about 700 rubles. For comparison, high-quality oak lining is not sold cheaper than one and a half thousand per square.
Lining of class “A” and class “B” in price differ on average by 20-25 percent. Category “C” can be several times cheaper than the B-class. You can save a little if you buy short lamellas 0.3–1 meters long for individual sections and narrow structures, they will be 25–30 percent more profitable than full-size ones (2.5–3 meters). With an increase in the thickness of the panels, the cost per square meter of cladding increases almost proportionally..