- Types of drainage systems
- Calculation of the number of elements of the drainage system
- Draining rainwater from the foundation
The drainage system is an important element of any structure and is designed to drain rain and melt water from the roof of the house away from the foundation. It is easier to install the drainage system before roofing, but you can do this after the roof is completely ready.
Types of drainage systems
Drainage systems differ in the material from which they are made, as well as in the diameter of the gutter and the diameter of the pipe.
The most budgetary version of the drainage system is a system made of galvanized metal with a thickness of 1-2 mm. Such a drainage system can be purchased on the construction market. Usually gutters and pipes are of the same size. This gutter system is pretty easy to install, cheap, durable and looks good on old or renovated houses..
Also, the consumer is well-known and widely presented on the market plastic drainage system. Here the choice is already more varied, systems are made by many manufacturers, while various standard sizes are offered depending on the customer’s requirements. In their manufacture, various polymeric materials are used, depending on this, the price of such a system may fluctuate. The polymer gutter system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Its durability and appearance is highly dependent on the quality of the plastic from which it is made. The advantages include ease of installation, beautiful appearance, durability. Among the disadvantages is the fragility of plastic, the possibility of loss of color and shape due to improper installation.
The most expensive and most reliable is a metal gutter system in a polymer film. Such a drain reliably retains its shape thanks to the metal and is practically not subject to corrosion due to the polymer film. At the same time, you can choose any color of the film that matches the design of the facade of the house..
Calculation of the number of elements of the drainage system
To calculate the length and diameter of the drainage system, you need to know the dimensions of the roof and the height of the house. The width of the roof determines the length of the gutter, while it must be borne in mind that the length of the gutter has a certain size, and the number of pieces is required to be calculated as a multiple of this length. For a house with a roof area of one hundred square meters, it is better to use the maximum diameter of the gutter.
Let’s calculate the drainage system for a house with a wall height of four and a half meters and a roof width of nine meters for one roof slope:
- Gutter 3m long – 3 pcs;
- Gutter connecting element – 2 pcs;
- Right gutter plug – 1 piece;
- Left gutter plug – 1 pc;
- Funnel – 2 pcs;
- Bracket for gutter fixing – 16 pcs;
- Downpipe 3m long – 4 pcs;
- Downpipe connecting element – 2 pcs;
- Fastening the pipe to the wall – 10 pcs;
- Pipe rotation with an angle of 45 degrees – 6 pcs.
- Also, for the installation of the drainage system, you will need the following tools:
- Construction knife;
- Building level;
- Plumb line;
The installation of the gutter system begins with the installation of fasteners for the gutter. Depending on the type of fastening, it can be installed on the roof truss structure or directly on the wall. When attaching these elements, it is necessary to set a slope of several degrees towards the downpipe. This is done so that rainwater goes into the pipe faster and does not overflow over the edge of the gutter..
The brackets are evenly distributed along the wall with a distance of 500-600 mm between them. If the brackets are attached to the truss structure, then they are screwed with self-tapping screws to each filly using a drill.
After the brackets are securely fastened, proceed to the installation of the gutter. First, we outline the location of the funnel and drainpipe and cut off the extra piece of the gutter with a construction knife or grinder. You can assemble the gutter structure together with funnels and plugs on the ground and then lift it up for installation on the brackets. But this will require two people and two ladders. If the installation is carried out by one person, then you can assemble the system already at the top, because modern drainage systems are made in the form of a constructor and do not cause difficulties, but on the contrary, they allow you to enjoy yourself due to the ease of assembly.
Now you can start installing the pipe. The first mount is installed just below the 45 degree elbow that guides the pipe towards the funnel. Using a tape measure, the distance is measured and the required piece of pipe is cut with a knife or grinder.
The remaining fasteners are evenly distributed along the wall with a distance of 800-1000 mm between them. Holes must be drilled in the wall with a perforator to securely attach the downpipe brackets. The verticality of the installation of the brackets is checked using a plumb line. It remains to measure the exact size of the pipe, cut off the excess and fix it on the wall. It is necessary to put a turn on the lower end of the pipe and add a small section to drain water from the wall of the house and the foundation.
Draining rainwater from the foundation
To drain the collected water from the foundation of the house, you will need to make a small rainwater receiver directly where the water comes out of the drain pipe and, using polymer pipes, take it to the end of the site to the filter well, or take it directly to the street.
A pit can be arranged as a rainwater receiver, which must be concreted on its own or use a ready-made element sold in hardware stores. The second option is simpler but more expensive.
For the option with a concrete rainwater receiver and a filter well, you will need the following materials:
- Crushed stone with fraction 5-20 – 1.5 cubic meters;
- Sand – 0.1 cubic meters;
- Cement – 50 kg;
- Formwork boards;
- Polymer sewer pipe for outdoor use – the length depends on the size of the site;
- Welded grate to the size of the inlet.
The following tools are required for the device of the rainwater receiver:
- Pegs for marking;
- Hammer or screwdriver;
- Nails or wood screws;
- Concrete mixer.
Determine the location of the stormwater receiver and mark it with pegs on the ground. Its inner size is 300×300 mm, the outer size, taking into account the thickness of the concrete wall, is 400×400 mm. The pit is dug to a depth of 600 mm. The next step is to dig a trench for laying the drainage pipe. The trench is dug to the width of a shovel and with a depth from the bottom of the pit with a slight slope towards the filter well. The slope must be at least two degrees.
At the end of the trench, a pit is dug for a filtering well with a size of 1000×1000 mm and a depth of one meter.
After that, a pipe is laid in the trench, which should protrude into a pit prepared for a rainwater inlet by 50 mm and into a filter well by 500-600 mm. After laying the pipe, it must be gradually covered with soil with pouring so that there are no voids left under it. When the pipe is laid, you can proceed to concreting the stormwater receiver. To begin with, the formwork from the boards is exposed, a reinforcing mesh is installed, the pipe hole is plugged with a film. The preparatory work is completed, it remains to knead the concrete mixture and pour it into the resulting form.
While the concrete is gaining strength, you can start building a filter well. Since the water entering it will be only rainwater, it does not need special treatment and can enter the ground in the same form. Therefore, it is enough to fill the filter well with gravel, and the top layer 200 mm thick – with garden soil.
It is possible to remove the formwork from the concreted rainwater receiver in a day, and the concrete will gain strength only in a week. In order to avoid drying out and cracking of the concrete, it must be protected from direct sunlight for the first two weeks. It remains only to install the grate on the storm inlet, direct the drainpipe into it, and the work is finished.