- Attic design: what to consider
- Installation of a wooden structure
- Installation of the roofing part of the attic
There are several ways to expand your home’s living space. One of them is the construction and arrangement of the attic floor. We will tell you how to make an attic, what work and in what order you need to perform, as well as what you should pay special attention to when designing and building an attic..
Attic design: what to consider
Any construction or reconstruction always begins with a project. It is needed in order to designate everything, even the smallest nodes and moments, the omission of which in the future can cost a lot of investment. In addition, when erecting an attic floor above an already residential building, it is necessary to conduct an examination of the load-bearing walls and foundation. This is especially important in private construction, since in most cases all work was done by hand, and over time, cracks and other defects could form..
When erecting an attic, it is necessary to provide for some points:
- Roof inclination angle. The amount of usable space in the attic room directly depends on it. The slope also depends on the climatic conditions. For a temperate climate with little rainfall in winter, roofs with a low slope are more suitable, and for areas with frequent and heavy rainfall, it is better to choose more raised roofs.
- The attic space requires good heat and waterproofing. Remember that this floor is as close as possible to the external environment, which means that heat transfer without appropriate thermal insulation will be very large. This is fraught with additional heating costs in winter and cooling in summer. And the ingress of condensation from the roof can lead to big trouble..
- The choice of roofing material in terms of sound insulation and protection against possible leakage. In addition, we must not forget about the processing of the wood part with fire protection.
- The location of the stairs. To save space, you can install it outside the house. Indoor stairs are much more convenient for moving around inside the house, but they usually take up a lot of space. Alternatively, you can mount a folding ceiling ladder.
- Layout of rooms, structures and place of installation of interior partitions.
- The number of electrical equipment, its capacity, placement of wiring.
- Location of pipelines, radiators, their capacity and location.
- Location of future windows, their sizes.
Before starting work, it is necessary to draw up a plan, a list of necessary materials, a general construction estimate.
Installation of a wooden structure
The wooden roof structure can be conditionally divided into two parts: the mauerlat and the rafter system. Consider the installation of these elements separately.
The Mauerlat is installed first. This is a wooden beam with dimensions from 10×10 to 40×40 cm. Mauerlat is mounted on top of the wall on a pre-laid waterproofing layer of ordinary roofing material, euroruberoid, a special film of dense polypropylene or PVC membrane.
More often, the Mauerlat is attached to the wall with studs through the through holes in the beam. Then nuts are screwed onto the studs.
We proceed to the installation of the rafter system. This is the most important element of the roof. The rafters are considered to be load-bearing, since the entire roof, along with thermal insulation, lies on them. They must be able to withstand the weight of the snow in winter and the effects of the wind.
One of the options for the attic rafter system: 1 – hanging rafters; 2 – grandmother; 3 – tightening; 4 – run; 5 – layered rafters; 6 – rack; 7 – brace; 8 – Mauerlat; 9 – floor beams
For the truss system, pine wood with a moisture content of up to 20% is best suited. Before assembling the roof frame, its tree must be treated with impregnation from pests, mold and fire.
At the first stage of the erection of the truss structure, you can make a template for measuring the remaining trusses. To do this, you need to connect the boards at the desired angle at the top of the building, then attach them with a transverse crossbar. After that, cutouts are made on the Mauerlat for the rafters. According to this template, trusses are assembled on the ground, lifted and mounted. The upper corners of the rafters are connected with flat side brackets. Installation must be carried out first along the edges, then the rest are mounted.
The rafters are attached to the Mauerlat with pins and brackets. The trusses are recommended to be fastened together with light boards. This design of the rafters prevents them from shifting under the influence of the wind. Possible deflections of the rafters can be prevented by installing vertical crossbars at their upper connection.
After installing the rafters, it is necessary to check the horizontal and evenness of the installation using a level. You also need to evaluate how tightly and securely the rafters and beams hold. The roof must be strong and reliable.
Installation of the roofing part of the attic
So, the skeleton of the roof is created. At the next stage, lathing slats are nailed to the rafters for the future roofing material. A waterproofing film or superdiffusion membrane is attached to the crate with the help of brackets from the bottom upwards, overlapping, on top of which, depending on the type of roofing material, counter battens or moisture-resistant plywood.
Insulation is mounted underneath the waterproofing. Basalt or fiberglass thermal insulation is usually used, less often other types of material, for example, ecowool. Thermal insulation must completely fill the space between the rafters. There should be a vapor barrier film under the insulation. It prevents moisture from entering the insulation from the room..
In the process of carrying out the work, you need to remember about the inserts into the roof for skylights. In the places of their installation, it is necessary to strengthen the rafter system with several bars. The total area of the windows should be approximately 10 times less than the area of the room where they are installed. After all these works, roofing material can be installed.
This completes the external work on the construction of the attic of the house. You can start carrying out communications and interior decoration of rooms.