- Simple and economical way to create steps
- Preparatory work
- Radius markings
- Defining slope
- A simple way to set the radius
- First stage
- Installation of the board for the second and subsequent stages
This article provides step-by-step instructions for creating a reinforced concrete porch with radius steps. You will learn how to correctly and simply set the radius of the steps, how to reinforce and concrete them. The article will tell you about professional techniques for fast and high-quality work..
In the previous article, there was a way to accurately calculate the porch on paper. With the help of a geometric formula, steps can be cast that will remain concrete during operation. However, in 70% of cases, such accuracy is not required, since it is planned to finish the surface with tiles, granite or marble..
Simple and economical way to create steps
In most cases, straight steps are made at a time – the entire march. You can also make a semicircular staircase. But this will require a lot of material for the formwork and time to install the formwork at once. This method is quick for concreting and is resorted to if concrete is ordered from the factory and a one-time pouring is required.
The simplified method boils down to the fact that the march is not concreted entirely, but one step at a time.
- The minimum amount of material for the formwork.
- One person can handle.
- The work is logically divided into stages / steps.
Disadvantage: mLower strength (20% at absolute load) compared to a porch filled in one go.
Attention! Saving on reinforcement and concrete (staircase construction) is not provided.
According to the principle of the device, a concrete porch is best done on a dirt cushion. We talked about how to make such preparation in the article “How to make a monolithic filling ladder with your own hands”.
To create steps you need a tool:
- Concrete set – concrete mixer, buckets, shovel, trowel, trowel.
- Rebar set – grinder, crochet hook, “poker” *.
- Carpentry kit – circular saw or jigsaw, screwdriver with screws or hammer with nails, nail puller.
- Measuring and marking – plumb line, level, cord, tape measure, marker.
* “Poker” – a homemade tool of the fitter, consisting of a lever with a pair of pins welded at the end – for bending the reinforcement.
As in any work, you need to “see” the finished result and, if possible, fix it on paper, at least in general terms. This will greatly facilitate the deliberation and breakdown process. First you need to create the supporting walls, or prepare the existing ones. They must be reliable, at least 1 brick thick.
If walls or piers already exist, steps should be inscribed into them by drawing the sides. The abutment of the stairs to the wall will have the shape of a regular march with rectangular steps. In the context, they are the same. The cut should also have a bottom line “on concrete”. The drawing on the support wall will serve as the starting point from which further actions will proceed. The silhouette of the steps is modeled and applied with a regular square and pencil.
This indicator directly depends on the size of the step, more precisely, on the height of the rise. It is better to set this parameter immediately, based on the 150 mm standard. Dividing the height difference from ground level to the top of the site, we get the number of steps. To do this, you need to know the extreme point of the upper platform. If it is not yet concreted, you can do it last..
The slope can also be adjusted by the length of the tread – the longer it is, the flatter the slope will be. This may be necessary when designing a march, based on the realities of the landscape: extreme points are determined (the angle of the first step and the angle of the site), then the distance and elevation difference in the plan is divided into an equal number of steps. It turns out the size of one step (close to 150×300 mm).
A simple way to set the radius
After determining the main elements (step, platform, slope), you can start setting the radius of the starting step. To do this, you need to know the extreme point of the radius – the farthest point of the march (determined by the slope and length of the tread). It should be in the middle between the walls. In total, you get 3 points through which you need to draw a part of the circle.
Instead of a circle line, it is proposed to use elastic reinforcement with a diameter of 10–12 mm. It can be bent at two ends through three points quite accurately along the radius (these are the properties of the rod). Having thus determined the edge of the first step, we fix the markings by driving the rods into the ground. We postpone the length of the tread – this will be the beginning of the backfill. The upper point of the backfill can be determined by modeling the radius of the platform and referring to the sketch of the steps along the side.
You can fill the bosom with anything – construction waste, dump, rubble. The main thing is that it must be carefully tamped. Ideally, it is better to use a vibratory rammer, but you can do it manually.
Advice.To create a simple manual rammer, screw a pair of door handles onto the chock (hemp).
When manually tamping, spill the soil with water for better shrinkage. Before the next steps, polyethylene or geotextile should be laid on the ground so as not to mix concrete with the ground.
According to the obtained radius (along the driven rods) and the point where the backfill starts, we can clearly determine the location of the main (lower) single reinforcement mesh. It should be linked as one, because the steps will be separate. The cross bars of the mesh must be built into the walls (through driven pins or anchors).
Flanging for steps can be made of any flexible sheet material – thin plywood, OSB (6 mm). You can bend two reinforcement rods and attach a galvanized strip to a wire to them. A reliable board is made from a strip of thick plywood – transverse cuts are made on the reverse (outer) side and the sheet is bent at any radius. At the same time, it remains possible to fasten the top. First stage stop – pins driven into the ground (or into the track).
Reinforcement of the first stage is carried out according to the diagram below. The lower part must be deepened to create a “tooth”. For reinforcement, the same standard elements are used as for a regular march:
- L-shaped – repeat the shape of the step, attached to the lower mesh.
- Cross bars – combine and distribute L-shaped elements.
- Masonry Mesh – Covers the tread to reinforce the outer layer.
The flange is installed along the radius and horizon level. It is convenient for concreting – no need to monitor the level.
Concrete can be placed without a vibrator. Due to the small thickness of the element, tapping the formwork and bayonetting will ensure sufficient shrinkage. Concrete should not be thick – excessive “coolness” can trap air in the mixture.
Attention! The step is concreted in one go, without interruption.
The flange can be removed the next day (at a temperature not lower than +5 ° C). Subsequent steps are concreted in the same way..
Installation of the board for the second and subsequent stages
The radius of the subsequent steps can be determined by the first, which will serve as a “beacon”. Rearrangement of the side can be done 3 days after the concreting of the previous stage.
Given the known tread length, the stops for the next bead can be precisely adjusted. To do this, you need to postpone the length of the tread from the edge of the previous step at many points. However, it is more convenient to postpone marks for the length of the tread minus the thickness of the bead. Thus, the sides will be immediately installed with orientation to the concrete border..
Concrete march is a reliable companion for the whole “life” of your home. Correctly performed once, it will serve for 100 years, and this is not an exaggeration. By using a vibrator, you will increase the life of any concrete structure by 30-50%.