Overview of roofing materials

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Today, the roofing material market includes many fundamental varieties and dozens of manufacturers. How to choose the best option for your building and mount it on your own, we will tell you in this article.

Overview of roofing materials

Slate ABC

Asbestos-cement sheet corrugated or flat. Dimensions 1750×1120 mm. Material: asbestos cement – a mixture of Portland cement and asbestos fibers.

The wave principle of profiling makes the sheet more flexible and elastic, which allows it to withstand the temporary load during installation (you can walk on it) and snow load. Also, “waves” create airflows between the roof surface and the vapor barrier, which allows you to remove excess temperature when heated from the sun, and set the direction of precipitation. This principle of airing is typical for corrugated sheets made of any materials..

Overview of roofing materials

Flat sheets hold the load much worse and heat up more, transferring the temperature to other layers, therefore they are not used in roofing work.

Advantages

Low cost and widespread use. Flame retardant. Not subject to corrosion, fading and soaking – can be stored outdoors. The longitudinal stiffness of the sheet allows you not to make a continuous crate. Long lasting. Absorbs noise from rain and hail. Can be used for other purposes as well (fence, formwork, etc.).

The main advantage: the technology is well mastered (slate has been produced and installed for about 100 years). Ease of manufacture and low cost of raw materials make it the lowest cost in comparison with other sheet materials. You can find slate in every hardware store.

Overview of roofing materials

Optimal for roofs with ventilated attics, awnings, garages, utility and unheated rooms. Used for mass development.

disadvantages

The weight of one sheet of slate 1750x1120x6.5 mm is approximately 22 kg. A prickly fall from a height of 1.5 m destroys the leaf. Covered with moss (can be eliminated using modern anti-fungal primers). Asbestos in slate is harmful to human health. Monotonous appearance and gray color (painted sheets are 1.5 times more expensive, there are special paints for slate). Not suitable for complex roofs – with valleys, dormer and built-in windows, “birdhouses”.

Installation technology

On the rafter system (beams with a pitch of 500-800 mm), a crate is sewn from a board of 25-35 mm with a pitch of no more than 500 mm.

Overview of roofing materials

Attention! When using unedged boards for lathing, be sure to remove the bark to avoid the appearance of bark beetle and woodworm.

The frequency of the crate is selected depending on the angle of inclination and the abundance of snow in the winter. With a slope of 5% to 30% and a large snow load – up to a solid crate. If this attic room or the roof is supposed to be insulated, a roll vapor barrier is laid on the crate. As a rule, it is roofing or thin roofing material.

Then, starting from the edge of the slope, sheets of slate are stacked in rows with an overlap of extreme half waves. The number of sheets should be calculated in advance, based on the area of ​​the roof.

The sheets are fixed with slate nails or roofing drilled self-tapping screws (with a 6-sided head) to the crate. With a slope of up to 55%, 4 anchoring points per sheet are sufficient.

Overview of roofing materials

Attention! Be sure to use rubber nail head spacers or aircraft washers. The nail (self-tapping screw) is inserted into the upper bend of the wave! Do not try to stitch two sheets on the overlap – this may cause the sheet to split..

To trim slate, you will need a grinder with a stone disc (turbine). The intersections of the planes of the slopes are covered by the so-called “ridge” – bent along strips of sheet metal (as a rule, ordinary galvanized) with a width of each edge of at least 200 mm.

Overview of roofing materials

Installation technology is approximately identical for all other corrugated sheets and other profiles.

Nuances to pay attention to when choosing and installing:

  1. When installing the upper ridge, leave air vents on the side of the gables (for ventilation of the slope).
  2. When calculating the material, be sure to take into account the stock “for cutting”. When the number of slopes is more than 2, at the joints along the slope, up to 50% of the sheet can be trimmed.
  3. Ideal for slate roofs is a slope of 45 degrees.
  4. The rafters and lathing of the ventilated attic inevitably dry out, which leads to the squeezing of the nails out, therefore every 5-7 years it is advisable to carry out preventive measures – to carefully finish off the nails.
  5. Water collected from the roof should never be drunk or used for cooking. It is undesirable to water the garden with such water due to the presence of asbestos particles.

Bituminous slate

Fiberglass impregnated with bitumen composition and polymers, fixed in the form of a corrugated sheet. Top (outer) layer – decorative.

Overview of roofing materials

Advantages

Absolutely harmless. Lightweight (3 kg / m2), sheet weight is about 6 kg. Dust-free sawing and processing. Flexibility – easy to adapt to existing bends (possibly defects in the rafter system).

Huge assortment of profile types, sizes, colors and decorations. New varieties are constantly being released. You can accurately select the desired color and in some cases even tint.

It is repaired without dismantling the site with cold bituminous adhesives and patches (in extreme cases, from roofing material). Withstands drops from a height. Excellent sound absorption. Does not glow in the sun.

Optimal for roofs with straight slopes when adding to the 2nd (attic) floor. Due to its low weight, it does not require a powerful crate or a thick base sheet. Lightweight sheets can be mounted alone.

disadvantages

Combustible. The lathing step is no more than 100 mm (high board consumption). It is advisable to use a solid sheet under the base (OSB from 8 mm). Cannot support a person’s weight over 80 kg (possible deformation, breakage).

Installation technology

The decorative appearance is a distinctive feature of bituminous slate, therefore, in order to maintain the clarity of the rows of fastener heads, we recommend using an edged board (20-25×100 mm) for the lathing in compliance with the step or a solid OSB sheet with a thickness of 8 mm.

Fastening is done with special self-tapping screws with a 6-sided head and a plastic lid with a latch along a stretched cord or markings.

Overview of roofing materials

To protect the joints, skates are used, issued by the same company as the sheets themselves. The rest of the points coincide with the installation technology of the ABTs slate.

Nuances to pay attention to when choosing:

  1. The recommended overlap during installation is 300 mm in length and 2 waves in width. Consider this when calculating.
  2. 1 mm of material thickness is approximately equal to 15 years of coating life. The thicker – the more durable, but also more expensive.
  3. To avoid deformation and destruction of the material (over time), make sure that the lathing was without “steps”.

Metal tiles and metal profiles

Decorative or straight profile metal sheets. The sheet is most often extruded in the form of “scales” of piece tiles. The straight profile has stiffening ribs along its length, which also serve as air vents. Metal thickness from 0.4 to 0.7 mm.

Overview of roofing materials

Advantages

Non-flammable. Light – weight 1 m2 about 5 kg. The metal has sufficient rigidity for installation on a light batten with a large pitch (500-700 mm). A variety of colors and shades. Solid sheets up to 6 meters long can be made to order.

The spread in the thickness of the metal, which directly affects the price, allows you to choose the best option, taking into account the loads (do not overpay for an unreasonable margin of safety).

Decorative look and durability. Ease of processing – thin metal can be trimmed with scissors.

Overview of roofing materials

Optimal for any roofs with sheathing or solid OSB sheet; on simple slopes with a minimum of kinks and elements.

disadvantages

Relatively high price. The deformed (dented) material does not restore its original appearance. Glows in the sun.

Installation technology

The installation principle does not differ from ABC or bituminous slate.

Overview of roofing materials

Nuances to pay attention to when choosing and installing:

  1. It is imperative to seal accidental holes in the insulated roof.
  2. Insert the self-tapping screw into the upper point of the wave.

Attention! Do not try to replace self-tapping screws with slate nails on expensive types of sheet roofing – damage to the material from an accidental hammer blow will be irreversible.

It is undesirable to use on low canopies without a layer of roll material – metal heated in the sun will heat the air around it. Consider pruning when calculating.

Bituminous shingles

Bituminous shingles are separate small (about 300×800 mm) sheets cut in a uniform pattern. Each sheet has a hidden and visible part. Hidden turns out to be from below when overlapping.

Overview of roofing materials

Sheet material – modern high-strength roofing material 3 mm thick with a decorative top layer and basalt dressing.

Advantages

Light weight. Ease of installation alone. The flexibility of the material allows you to bypass difficult junctions, valleys and other “bottlenecks”. The ability to cover dome structures. A variety of patterns and colors. Good sound absorption. In the sun, over time, it is soldered into a continuous sealed layer. Small amount of waste, the ability to accurately calculate the material.

Ideal for complex roofs with a large number of architectural elements. For large, straight ramps, the cost of a solid base may not be justified. The exceptional decorativeness of bituminous shingles is good for design projects, cultural objects or restoration of historical buildings while maintaining the style.

Overview of roofing materials

disadvantages

Combustible. Requires a solid base. When laying, expensive bituminous glue (roofing mastic) is used. Not ventilated. Highest final cost of the materials presented.

Installation technology

For the device of this type of roof, a solid base is required. It must be reliable, so it should be done in two layers. On the rafters, a crate is sewn from a board of 20-30 mm.

Attention! Thickness tolerance no more than 3 mm!

A leveling layer of OSB (thickness from 6 mm) is laid along the crate with gaps between the sheets of 5 mm, which are filled with roofing sealant.

Overview of roofing materials

Attention! Do not try to do without the crate out of economy and fix the OSB immediately to the rafters. The entire rafter structure will lose its rigidity and warp over time.

Then, starting from the edge of the roof slope, the tiles are laid in compliance with the pattern. They are preliminarily lubricated with a special mastic from below, fixed with special nails with a large flat head or “felt buttons”.

Overview of roofing materials

The material is cut with an ordinary construction knife, but for the base device you will need a set of wood tools (circular saw, jigsaw, screwdrivers, possibly an electric plane) and carpentry skills.

Nuances to pay attention to when choosing and installing:

  • it is undesirable to use bitumen shingles from different companies on the same roof – they may have different properties and fade period.

Comparative table of characteristics and prices per m22:

Name Roofing material price, rub. Base materials price, rub. Approximate cost of installation services, rub. Final cost, rub.
ABC slate 8-wave 95 crate – 50
roofing material – 30
200 375
Bituminous slate from 220 to 280 depending on thickness crate – 100
paroizol – 20
250 340-400
Metal tile / metal profile from 150 to 300 depending on thickness crate – 120
paroizol – 20
250 290-440
Bituminous shingles from 200 to 600 depending on thickness and manufacturer crate – 50
OSB8 – 120
mastic – 40
500 900-1300

The data presented is approximate and may vary depending on the scope of work, height, local conditions and the nuances of the contract.

The article describes the basic materials on the basis of which more advanced and technological ones are created, such as laminated bituminous tiles or reinforced bituminous slate. The introduction of innovations immediately affects the price, and the material has not yet passed the test of time and “voting with the ruble”, so it is reasonable to entrust such a crucial area as the roof with proven material and not experiment.

It is also important not to try to save money by adjusting the technology to your own capabilities – in this case, it is better to choose a cheaper and simpler one..

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