Pool waterproofing – choosing materials and technologies

Recommendation points

Everyone who decides to build a pool of any volume and degree of complexity needs to think about its effective waterproofing. After all, water creates significant loads and can destroy it without the use of waterproofing materials. Whichever pool bowl you installed (steel, aluminum, reinforced concrete, stone, etc.), you need to waterproof it.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

External and internal waterproofing – how much it costs and which one to use

There are only two types of pool waterproofing: internal waterproofing and external. The latter is needed as protection against groundwater. Usually, pools are installed above the groundwater level, and in this case, external waterproofing is not necessary. If the interaction of groundwater with the pool bowl cannot be avoided in any way, then such insulation is needed, especially for reinforced concrete structures. The fact is that underground waters, penetrating into the pores of concrete, destroy the reinforcement and internal waterproofing, leading to deformation of the entire pool. The most effective waterproofing material in this regard is considered to be bentonite mats made on the basis of natural clays. The cost of external waterproofing of a small pool (3x6x1.5) will be at least 25 thousand rubles.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Internal waterproofing is necessary for the pool in any case. It protects his bowl from the negative effects of water, prevents corrosion, prevents plaster peeling, and prevents leaks. High-quality internal pool insulation must meet the following requirements:

  • have good water resistance, a high degree of adhesion to the surface;
  • the insulating layer must be elastic and thin enough;
  • resistance to opening gaps and cracks – up to 3 mm;
  • meet basic environmental standards;
  • be able to withstand both hydrostatic and dynamic loads;
  • should suppress the growth of fungi and microbes;
  • match the type of finish.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Prices for internal insulation are much higher than for external, they depend on the materials used, the advantages and disadvantages of which will be discussed below..

PVC film – features of application and installation

PVC film belongs to membrane coating systems. It is a modern, good waterproofing agent, lightweight material, excellently tolerates the effects of chemicals, ultraviolet rays, is frost-resistant (withstands up to 63 ° C below zero), is easy to clean, serves as a finishing and waterproofing coating at the same time, and is also cheaper than all other insulation materials for swimming pools ( the cost for the structure 3x6x1.5 is about 65 thousand rubles The thickness of the film is 1–1.5 mm The top layer is rough, anti-slip The film can be used both for new pools and for reconstruction of old ones, for example, tiled. The coating is laid on top of this tile. Geotextiles must be placed under the film to protect it from condensation and damage. The disadvantages of this material include a relatively short service life, after 5-10 years it needs to be changed. Also, you can hardly install it yourself without having special construction skills. It is worthwhile, since there is such a complex technology as hot air welding of seams. It is enough to admit the slightest inaccuracy, and water will penetrate under the entire waterproofing carpet.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Liquid rubber – an innovative waterproofing material

It is an aqueous emulsion of highly modified purified bitumen, to which special elastomers, polymers are added, and the catalyst is a calcium chloride solution. In 2003, the surface of the first pool in Russia was treated with liquid rubber. Since then, there have been no complaints about this product. There are good reasons for this. Liquid rubber does not degrade under the influence of most chemicals (even hydrochloric acid). It can be used for external and internal waterproofing of the pool, using a seamless technology of its application. It perfectly protects load-bearing building structures from destruction and corrosion, does not allow water to pass through, creates reliable protection against the effects of groundwater, does not emit compounds hazardous to health, it is possible to use various paints to obtain waterproofing of the desired color. But this modern material also has its drawbacks: it does not tolerate UV radiation well, therefore it needs to be coated with special means that protect against ultraviolet radiation. Also, it cannot be applied to a damp surface; a set of preparatory work must be performed before coating the pool bowl. Average cost: 100 rubles. kg (you need 3 kg per 1 sq. m).

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Features of liquid glass

Liquid glass is a special aqueous solution containing sodium silicate (the same office glue). It is able to significantly extend the life of the pool, it has antiseptic properties. It fills all cracks and pores in concrete, protecting it from the effects of air and moisture. Liquid glass is fireproof, has high adhesion, frost-resistant, fire-and-explosion proof. It can be used in the form of impregnations, additives and additives. Disadvantages: leaves whitish salt spots on the surface, preparation laborious (it is added to the mixture, composing in certain proportions). Average cost: 100 rubles. per kilogram.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Latex waterproofing membrane

It is a ready-to-apply latex liquid. Comes with reinforcing fabric. Forms an elastic, thin, waterproof, crack-suppressing (up to 2-3 mm) membrane on the pool surface. Ideal for waterproofing under glass mosaics, ceramic tiles, natural and artificial stone; inhibits the growth of microbes and fungi. Most often used in the construction of concrete pools. It should not cover damp surfaces. Average cost: 250 rubles. per liter.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Penetrating waterproofing for reinforced concrete pools

This can be, for example, polymerizable impregnations. The principle of operation of this insulating material is as follows: it penetrates deeply into the pores of concrete (up to 0.5 m), polymerizes there, reliably clogs them, forming plastic. It is convenient to apply it from the inside of the insulated structure. This type of waterproofing improves the frost resistance of concrete, prevents mold and mildew, and creates an excellent basis for applying a layer of plaster. The disadvantages include the impossibility of applying insulation to the joints of concrete with elements of water supply equipment and sealing cracks that have appeared in the plaster layer. In aggregate, can also be used:

  • solutions of mineral acids. They provide sufficient opening of the concrete pores, which ensures the deepest possible penetration of the waterproofing composition into it;
  • additives to solutions. These are various adhesives and grouts that improve the properties of waterproofing compounds.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

Cement based insulation – advantages and disadvantages

There are many waterproofing materials based on a cement-sand mixture. It is a two-component polymer-cement film compositions based on synthetic resin and vinyl acetate (5–10%). The thickness of the layer is 2–5 cm. Such waterproofing materials have good performance characteristics: they are suitable for sealing indoor indoor and outdoor pools, adhere perfectly to any surfaces, easily perceive static and dynamic loads, and are vapor permeable (this allows you to effectively solve the problem of blistering and bubbles), high indicators of reliability, strength, convenience and ease of application. Cement waterproofing can be applied to damp surfaces. The disadvantages include a low degree of elasticity. This leads to low suitability of the material at significant temperature drops, when non-structural cracks up to 3 mm can form. Elastic or silicate sealants can solve the problem. Cost: about 200 rubles. per kilogram.

Pool waterproofing - choosing materials and technologies

In conclusion, we note that the most effective waterproofing materials are PVC film, latex waterproofing membrane and liquid rubber. These are the latest materials made using modern technologies that have advantages over the technologies of the past. Cement and penetrating waterproofing are much less optimal for use in pool construction, since they are inelastic, unresistant to cracking up to 3 mm, do not withstand strong hydrostatic and dynamic loads, are sensitive to disinfection of water in the pool.

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