The roof is a very complex structure. Due to the “top” position, it is influenced by such significant variable loads as wind and snow cover. And it is she who takes over most of the rainfall. What are the features of the main types of roofing systems?
A roof with a slope of 3-5 ° is considered flat.
In practical terms, this is one of the most economical types of roofing systems. Due to the smallest roof area, it takes significantly less materials and time to equip it. A flat surface greatly facilitates construction and installation work, including the installation of ventilation equipment, climate control equipment, antennas. This set of advantages explains the popularity of this type of roof for apartment buildings, shopping and business centers, industrial buildings..
In private housing construction, a flat roof is chosen for small outbuildings and outbuildings that do not need an attic.
In warm regions, especially in dense urban areas, flat roofs are often made exploitable. A small recreation area is equipped on it, where tiles are used as a finishing coating:
or terrace board.
The main disadvantages are the absence of an attic and a more complex organization of the drainage of sedimentary water.
Another roof option with one plane is a shed roof with rafters resting at different levels.
Depending on the seasonal amount of snow cover, the bearing capacity of the structure, as well as the type of roofing materials, the slope value can start from 8 ° (for corrugated board). The upper limit of the angle is also limited by the wind load.
The main sphere of use is household and household buildings, small country houses.
The main disadvantage is the lack of an exploited attic.
This is one of the most common roofing systems for small private houses..
The gable roof combines a fairly simple design and the ability to operate the attic – up to the organization of the attic.
It is equally often used for brick houses with rafters supported on a Mauerlat:
and for wooden houses with a roof support on the top rail.
As a special case of a gable roof, an example of a “hut” style house can be cited, when vertical walls are present only in the form of gables.
Among the simple roofing systems, hip and semi-hip roofs are the most complex in design..
The classic hip roof contains four slopes: two triangular and two in the form of a trapezoid, resting at the top on a short ridge beam.
Half-hip roofs come in two versions:
1. The Dutch system – the frontal slope (hip) has the form of a shortened triangle with the apex at the end of the ridge beam and the base lying not on the Mauerlat or harness, but on the upper beam of the pediment in the form of a trapezoid.
2. The Danish system – the hip, like the side slopes, looks like a trapezoid resting on the Mauerlat, and from above, to the ridge beam, there is a small pediment.
This type of system can be considered as a special case of a gable:
or hip roof.
The broken rafter system allows you to increase the useful volume of the attic space and use ordinary windows not only on the pediment, but also on the roof slopes.
Multi-gable roofing systems
This type is typical for houses with complex geometry in plan..
Moreover, one rafter system can also be used as the main element – for example, a gable:
and several different systems.