Classification and characteristics of wallpaper

What do we know about wallpaper? Yes, practically nothing, if you do not take into account the fact that, once having chosen wallpaper for our room, we live with them for many years, we feed on them with energy and generally raise our vitality. After all, the truth is – when we go to bed or wake up in the morning, our eyes first of all rest: no, not on the sleeping husband / wife / girlfriend / stranger / stranger, but on our WALLPAPERS. Therefore, you need to choose them wisely, with an arrangement, so as not to worry about the rest of your life. After all, you never know when you again have enough money for repairs?

The fact is that wallpaper is the most traditional and well-known finishing material for a long time. Well, what does this word mean to us? A kind of roll material, as a rule, on a paper basis (but in some cases even without it), which is attached to the surface of the walls with the help of glue. With careful delving into the topic, it turned out that there are so many types of these same wallpapers: your eyes will run up until you choose something suitable, beautiful and comfortable.

Wallpaper classification

By water resistance:

WALLPAPERS REGULAR. Such specimens do not withstand the effects of water, they only need dry wiping (wiping individual soiled areas with a cloth or vacuuming, but without brushing the wallpaper);

WATERPROOF WALLPAPERS. These, on the contrary, withstand wiping lightly soiled places with a damp sponge or soft cloth without the use of detergents;

WALLPAPERS WASHABLE – withstand water cleaning with the addition of detergents;

WALLPAPERS HIGH RESISTANCE – VINYL. With these, everything is clear, withstand all of the above and even more.

By surface type:

WALLPAPERS are SMOOTH;

WALLPAPER WITH RELIEF PATTERN, applied to the surface during production;

WALLPAPER WITH EXPRESSED SMALL PICTURE;

WALLPAPERS WITH DEEP DRAWING multilayer.

By density:

WALLPAPERS LIGHT;

WALLPAPERS HEAVY (at a density of less than 110 g / m2, there are significant difficulties with gluing stripes in the presence of irregularities on the substrate; denser wallpaper has a positive effect on the indoor climate).

Depending on the drawing:

WALLPAPERS SMOOTH SINGLE COLOR;

PATTERNED WALLPAPERS (no repeating pattern that requires adjusting adjacent stripes when gluing).

On average, our wallpaper lasts 4-5 years. But this is only under the conditions, with the norms that they (that is, we, their owners) are obliged to observe: firstly, the norm of lightfastness, which must be at least 6 Vg of the eight-degree blue scale. Therefore, the owners are required to monitor the correct arrangement of furniture so that daylight falls on the wallpaper almost in full. Where they do not receive light, they quickly deteriorate and fade. Secondly, the rate of vapor permeability, which should be at least 100 g / m2? in 24 hours. This condition greatly affects the microclimate of the room.

The general conditions of individual wallpaper consignments provide:

  • checking the average density by weighing three samples measuring 10×10 cm with an accuracy of 0.01 g;
  • steam conductivity test – in gr. per unit of surface and time;
  • checking the resistance to wet wiping by wiping the wallpaper sample with a damp swab covered with flannel and loaded with a mass of 100 g (after 10 movements of 100 mm each, the swab should not get dirty, and the surface of the samples should not be damaged);
  • determination of resistance to washing by a method similar to the previous one, but the tampon is moistened with water with the addition of detergents (after 50 movements, the tampon should not become contaminated, and the surface of the samples should not be damaged);
  • determination of resistance to light.
  • Basically, this is all general information. And in order not to dwell on general points, let’s move on to a more detailed study of the phenomenon of wallpaper. Everyone here will gather the necessary information for themselves and draw conclusions and choices. Right! Well, and now to the most interesting thing: here are the most popular and widespread TYPES OF WALLPAPERS especially in our country, of which something should obviously appeal to you!

    Paper wallpaper.

    Of course, the most beloved and most widely used are still paper wallpapers. This is explained, first of all, by their comparative cheapness and simplicity of installation technology. In addition, they are environmentally friendly, allow the walls to “breathe”, they can be used to decorate almost any living space with low air pollution and humidity. And their inherent relative fragility (only some imported samples are designed for a service life of 5-10 years) are fully compensated for by a low price. Paper wallpaper slightly reduces the thermal conductivity of the walls and increases sound absorption. Significant disadvantages of paper wallpaper are low strength, which is especially manifested in the process of pasting, the impossibility of using in damp rooms that require treatment of the walls with detergents. From an aesthetic point of view, modern paper wallpaper with its variety of colors and structures can satisfy even the most sophisticated taste.

    Smooth and embossed wallpapers are produced, with and without a pattern and, even, intended for further staining and impregnation with a water-repellent composition. Paper wallpapers with a textured surface have an interesting decorative effect. It can be a duplex embossed wallpaper, which consists of two interconnected sheets of paper, embossed while still wet. Or there may be coarse-fiber wallpaper, also consisting of two paper layers, between which a layer of wood chips is placed.

    Of these materials, the most popular are the German wood-fiber wallpaper Bauhfaser and the embossed Novaboss wallpaper, which have won good fame among both decorators and designers. Both products are environmentally friendly, do not change their structure when glued to walls, hide minor wall defects, withstand up to 15 painting cycles.Due to the uniformly structured surface of such wallpaper, the pasted wall has a beautiful appearance, which is achieved not with the help of ornaments, but as a result of a kind of light refraction. revitalizing the entire glued surface. Interior items, paintings, curtains, curtains look good on such structured, monochromatic surfaces..

    Vinyl wallpapers.

    Recently, along with traditional paper wallpaper, vinyl wallpaper, which has appeared relatively recently, is very popular. These wallpapers are formed from two layers – the bottom layer of paper (or fabric) is covered with a layer of polyvinyl, and then a pattern or embossing is applied to the surface. Foam wallpaper, in which the upper layer of vinyl has acquired an additional structure as a result of heat treatment, is denser and well covers the surfaces of the walls. Another type of vinyl wallpaper – silk-screen printing – has silk threads in the upper layer of vinyl.

    Most often, this type of wallpaper is dark-colored, smooth or embossed. This group of materials is united by increased decorativeness, resistance to light effects. Significant strength, elasticity and waterproofness of the top layer allow the use of vinyl wallpaper for pasting rooms that require frequent wet cleaning with the use of detergents, i.e. they are used for pasting kitchens, bathrooms, hallways, hallways. Working with vinyl wallpaper, of course, is still difficult. Due to its considerable thickness, vinyl wallpaper, which has a moisture-resistant vinyl layer, prevents excess moisture from passing through, in addition, they have a high coefficient of linear tension, when glue is applied, they stretch strongly, and when dried, they shrink. As a result, the seams between the wallpaper panels may disperse..

    Vinyl wallpaper is also very difficult to withstand changes in temperature and humidity, but vinyl wallpaper is perhaps the most interesting look from a decorative point of view. The technology for the production of vinyl wallpaper allows you to create such a variety of coating options that this material can rightfully be considered multifaceted..

    Textile wallpaper.

    Textile wallpaper is a paper web laminated with threads of natural or mixed fibers, or natural fabric.

    Their production technology consists of several processes:

    1. Formation of textile fabric. For this, various types of yarns or threads are used, consisting of natural (linen, cotton) or mixed fibers. A filament fabric can be formed from a different number of filaments depending on their thickness and packing density. The number of threads is from 25 to 150 per 10 cm of the width of the paper web;

    2. Forming the wallpaper. The process consists of applying glue to a paper base and pressing it with a yarn;

    3. Drying process, which consists in the passage of the paper web, laminated with threads, through 5-6 drying chambers, with infrared radiation. The result of the drying process is the finally formed roll of wallpaper up to 1000 m long; cutting and packaging – this is the final stage, at which a large roll is cut into standard (10.05 m long) or other lengths at the request of the customer.

    Such wallpapers can be produced in various widths – from 53 to 80 cm. Textile wallpapers have increased heat-insulating and noise-absorbing properties, light resistance; This is an environmentally friendly product. These wallpapers belong to the group of materials that are hardly combustible, and materials containing linen fibers have bactericidal properties. Currently, wallpaper is produced from cotton, viscose and linen threads, as well as from threads containing natural and artificial fibers..

    The use of various yarns allows you to provide any color gamut and, thus, satisfy the most sophisticated tastes of customers and the highest requirements of modern design. Textile wallpapers on a synthetic basis are also produced, which are textile fabric glued to foam rubber. A special type is velor wallpaper. They are paper canvases, on which a pattern is first applied during the production process, and then velor fibers. The result is a soft, velvety surface.

    Textile wallpaper is intended for pasting walls and ceilings of office, residential and administrative premises in the usual way. They do not require adjustment to the pattern, which is their significant advantage over traditional paper ones. The peculiar texture of the canvas provides an inconspicuous connection of the stripes to each other and imitation of a continuous fabric surface.

    Lincrust.

    A variety of valuable types of wallpaper is linkrust. It has a paper base, and unlike ordinary wallpaper, it is covered with a thin layer of mass consisting of lonoxin, vinyl chloride and other mastics with wood flour or other fillers. The elastic mass allows you to squeeze out a wide variety of patterns and ornaments.

    This wallpaper has a long lifespan, can be painted with oil paint, and makes it easy to keep the wall surface clean compared to conventional wallpaper..

    Liquid wallpaper.

    Recently, coatings that have received the trade name “liquid wallpaper” have gained particular popularity. This material allows you to create smooth or embossed surfaces without seams. The composition of the coating may include cotton, cellulose, textile fibers. “Liquid wallpaper” is diluted with water-based paint and applied with a roller or spray gun. Tinting of “liquid wallpaper” is done with special paints. The advantage of the material is the ability to apply it on concrete, plasterboard surfaces that do not have significant defects (chips, holes). Coatings are supplied to the Russian market in powder or liquid form.

    Jute wallpaper.

    Linen weave jute wallpapers come in a variety of colors and are sold in rolls. They are easy to work with as they are glued to a paper base. But, of course, you can upholster your walls with ordinary jute, as draperies do..

    Wallpaper based on serpyanka.

    Wallpaper based on serpyanka is a new material for domestic builders. They are produced by the German company “MOHR” under the name “Profideco”. It is a roll material consisting of two layers. The basis of the wallpaper is a non-woven cellulose fabric. A finishing layer of foamed cellulose is applied to it. As a result, rolls of wallpaper with a width of 1.06-25 m (for professional finishing) and a standard size of 0.53×10 m (for private consumers) are obtained. The characteristics of “Profideco” wallpaper correspond to GOST 6810-86 “Wallpaper. Technical conditions”. The new material has a number of significant advantages over other roll materials such as wallpaper. With the help of a finishing layer of foamed cellulose, more than 60 types of patterns and textures are obtained that imitate large and small structural plasters (for various rooms), “ceiling” structures, and various fabrics. The technology makes it possible to create not only coverings for the main area of ​​the wall, but also finishing elements: upper and lower borders. The natural color of “Profideco” wallpaper is white. The coatings can be used without additional finishing (ceilings) or painted with dispersion, latex and acrylic paints. This allows the designer to implement traditional and ultra-fashionable interior solutions in rooms for various functional purposes, as well as significantly increase the wear resistance of the coatings. The material has a vapor diffusion property, which allows the pasted surfaces to “breathe”. At the same time, the durability of “Profideco” wallpaper when gluing is significantly higher than, for example, of conventional paper ones. Wallpaper strips have a stable shape: they do not stretch during work, do not “shrink” when the glue dries, do not twist. Now “Profideco” wallpaper is gaining more and more popularity not only in Germany, but also in Russia.

    Glass fiber.

    Some time ago, a relatively new material for wall decoration appeared on the Russian market – fiberglass wallpaper, which has been successfully used abroad for about 50 years. The basis of the material is made of special glass fibers, which are drawn through dies in a platinum “boat” at a temperature of about 1200 ° C. They are then formed into yarn and woven. As a result, a woven fabric with a different pattern is obtained. Raw materials for the production of glass wallpaper are mineral environmentally friendly materials: quartz sand, soda, lime, dolomite. Thus, there is no breeding ground for microorganisms.

    Glass is a dielectric, so the possibility of electrostatic charge accumulation is excluded. Glass fiber does not cause allergies, does not emit toxic substances into the air. At the same time, fiberglass wallpaper has high fire safety, vapor permeability, water resistance, alkali and acid resistance. Glass fiber is usually supplied in rolls 1 m wide. The roll area is up to 50 m2. The chemical composition of fiberglass wallpaper determines the possibility of its application on surfaces of different nature. Wallpaper can be glued on concrete and brick surfaces, free from dust and other contaminants, drywall and chipboard (fiberboard), wooden and metal bases. Observing some simple rules, with the help of glass wallpaper, you can, for example, in old buildings achieve structural and color unification of surfaces, and give rooms a modern aesthetic look. For builders, an important quality of glass fiber wallpaper is the ability to hide small cracks, rusting, seams between panels, getting a perfectly flat structured surface, ready for further finishing. These wallpapers are used in residential premises, offices, hotels, medical institutions, as they contribute to maintaining the microclimate in the room..

    Cork wallpaper.

    The base is cork oak bark. Prepared by hot pressing at t = 360-400 ° C. At the same time, adhesive substances are released from the cork. Thus, the cork sticks to itself, as it were. Cork wallpaper has antibacterial properties.

    Wood veneer wallpaper.

    A fine wood veneer (~ 0.1 mm thick) applied to special thick paper is sold as a sheet 50-70 cm wide or in sheets 50-70 cm in size. Such wallpapers create a feeling of warmth and, in fact, are not as expensive as the corresponding upholstery with wood panels. Natural “plywood” wallpaper should not be confused with plastic “wood grain” wallpaper.

    Metallic wallpaper.

    Metallic wallpaper is another representative of the vast world of wallpaper. They are made by covering the paper base with a thin layer of foil, after which the surface of the wallpaper is embossed or patterned. The “metallic” surface of these wallpapers is wear-resistant and easy to clean, and a special dispersion glue is required to stick them.

    Wallpaper.

    The basis is paper with a color photographic image. This is a common type of wallpaper that creates a certain mood. They are popular because they are inexpensive and yet provide a lot of fun when contemplating a landscape. In this sense, such wallpapers can be compared with old tapestries depicting, for example, a deer by a mountain lake, houses by a river, etc..

    Carpet wallpaper (tufting wallpaper).

    If you have a desire to carpeted walls and floors, try tufted wallpaper. “Tufting” means “pile” and fluffy wallpaper is a pile attached to a fabric backing. This decorative finish looks good, absorbs sound and retains heat. This wallpaper is made of 100% synthetic fiber, is insensitive to moisture and relatively fire resistant. They are glued with regular wallpaper glue..

    Polina Lichagina

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