The massive facades of old buildings with majestic columns and sculptures have inspired artists and poets living in museum cities – St. Petersburg, Venice, Rome and others for a long time. How to attract the aura of antiquity and create a massive facade, we will tell you in this article..
The memorable appearance of buildings-monuments of European architecture has one distinctive feature – powerful rectangular protrusions with curly edges, which create the impression of masonry with huge hewn boulders. In fact, this appearance is the result of a skillful finish, made so scrupulously that it is hard to believe that there is a layer of ordinary plaster in front of your eyes..
Interesting fact.The name of this type of finish comes from the term “rust” – a straight or figured groove (or rather, the edge of this groove) between individual rectangular blocks. The blocks are called “quadras”.
Routes differ in shape. It can vary from simple to complex and completely arbitrary. There are several classic types of rustication:
- Rectangular.The simplest and most common. It has a regular rectangular shape with straight edges. Suitable for thin layers of plaster (5-15 mm). Outwardly simulates brickwork with arbitrary block sizes.
- “Greek”.Rather, it is a way of placing rectangular rustic stones on the surface. In this design, the plane is broken up in the form of a flat masonry with a seam spread in blocks of different sizes. Usually the blocks are not large – from 1/3 brick to 2 bricks in size, and the seams are shallow – up to 20 mm. Creates the look of masonry with polished stone.
- Semicircle.In this case, the sharp edges of the quadra with a rectangular rusticum are rounded off and trimmed. Used on facades with an abundance of curves, bends and arched shapes.
- “Gutter”.The edges of the quadra are in the form of an inner radius. This type of rustication is used on large squares, since they are wide in themselves, and due to the peculiarity of the view, they create a visual effect of an even greater distance between the planes..
- Beveled.The seam is triangular, where the vertex is the junction of the edges of the quadra. Creates an unusual look, evoking associations with a chocolate bar.
- Figured.The most difficult. Rust has a multi-stage shape.
There are so-called combined rusts. In this case, the square turns into rust, and the elements are separated by thin (10×10 mm) grooves. Such shapes are used to create transition planes, large patterns or ornaments, dividing belts, framing arches, openings, corners and other structural elements..
The most common ones are:
- “Pyramid” or diamond. Elements in the form of a pyramid with a regular base.
- Prismatic. Pyramid with a rectangular base.
- Chipped. Plane – a natural fracture of a stone cut from 4 sides in the correct shape.
Of course, these are far from all varieties – architecture has evolved over the centuries. The architects have achieved such skill in their craft that many rusticated facades have been perfectly preserved to this day, hundreds of years after their construction. Routes and quadras on such buildings are carefully selected at the design stage in order to maintain the proportions of the sizes. In many cases, such a house is a single composition in which absolutely all elements are harmoniously balanced with each other..
Today there are two ways to apply rusticated facades – “old” and “new”. Since the rust is part of the quadra – with an edge – it is appropriate here to talk about the method of its formation or manufacture.
“Old” (or “wet”) is produced by the same method, and often with the same tools, as 200 years ago. First, an impressive layer of plaster (20–40 mm) is applied, and then the rust is pulled out, cut out, squeezed out, scraped out in it. Or the quadras are initially separated by a crate.
“New” method (“dry”):
- Option 1. Quadra is made at the factory or on site from a dense lightweight material – expanded polystyrene – and mounted according to the markings, and then putty.
- Option 2. The square is cut in a layer of insulation (the same expanded polystyrene) and placed in the slots special grooves, formed in the form of rust, then putty.
Nowadays, rustication is simplified and does not require many years of practice to get an acceptable result. Modern materials simplify and speed up the process. However, the effect is still excellent – an ordinary stone building with a light hand of the designer takes on an exquisite and majestic appearance.
How to independently decorate the walls with rusticated plaster, we will tell you in the next article.