Botanical name – Afrormosia elata (Pericopsis elata).
German, English and Italian names – Afrormosia.
It grows in equatorial Africa, mainly along the coast between Congo and Ghana. Mature wood is yellowish-brown (brownish-golden), with dark veins. The structure of the wood is homogeneous, the fibers are almost evenly distributed. Afromosia is beautiful, decorative and is often used as a substitute for teak. It is often used as decorative elements for mosaic floors. The wood is relatively hard and dense, but at the same time it is easily processed and sanded. Resistant to loads and external influences.
Density (at standard moisture content for industrial wood): 700 – 800 kg / m3.
Hardness (Brinell coefficient): 3.7.
Botanical name – Bambusa.
German name – Bambus, English – Bamboo.
It grows in the tropics and subtropics everywhere. Bamboo is not technically a tree. It belongs to the family of cereals, and its tree-like tubular stem is a lignified straw, reaching 40 m in height and 30 cm in diameter in some species. The natural color of bamboo is golden straw, interspersed with darker transverse stripes where the stem nodes are located. The structure is homogeneous and dense. The structural features of bamboo do not allow using it in its natural form for the manufacture of massive products. Therefore, bamboo parquet planks are glued together at the factory from separate strips. Bamboo is well resistant to mechanical and climatic influences. When grinding requires the correct selection of abrasive materials and the sequence of their application.
Botanical name – Fagus sylvatica.
German name – Rotbuche, English – Beech, Italian – Faggio.
Widespread in Europe, traditionally used for the manufacture of parquet floors. The wood is light, with a reddish-yellow or grayish tint. Due to the homogeneous structure of the wood, the beech floor visually looks calm, warm, even soft, although beech is a hard and durable wood, not inferior to oak in this respect. It is well processed with a cutting tool and polished. Beech reacts quickly to changes in humidity and in this respect is the so-called ‘moody’, or, as it is classified in Germany, – a ‘nervous’ breed. Beech wood lends itself well to special heat treatment, which evens out its color and shifts it towards redder tones (the so-called ‘smoky beech’).
Density: 650 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Millettia laurenti.
German, English and Italian names – Wenge.
It grows in the tropical jungles of West Africa, up to Zaire. The sapwood is almost white, about 3 cm wide. Mature wood is from golden brown to very dark brown with black veins. The structure is large, even-grained, the wood is very decorative. Wenge wood is heavy, resistant to pressure and bending. Its pores contain many mineral and oily substances that complicate processing and, in particular, varnishing..
Density: 850 – 950 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Prunus (Cerasus) avium, Rosaceae family.
German name – Kirschbaum, English – Cherry, Italian – Ciliegio.
It grows throughout Europe, in Asia Minor, the USA and some areas of Central America. There are also American cherry (botanical name – Prunus serotina, local – Black cherry), growing in Canada and the northern part of the United States. The sapwood of the cherry is narrow, yellowish. Mature wood is pink-brownish, sometimes pink-grayish. The structure of the wood is even grained with a relatively uniform texture. Cherry wood is very decorative, has a nice warm shade, but darkens over time. In terms of hardness, it is significantly softer than oak and lends itself well to all types of processing.
Density: about 580 kg / m3.
Hardness: 3.0 – 3.3.
Botanical name – Carpinus betulus, birch family.
German name – Weissbuche, English – Hornbeam, Italian – Carpino.
Most widespread in Europe, Asia Minor and Iran. The wood is light, grayish-white, shiny, heavy, viscous. The fibers of the wood are often twisted (curl), so the hornbeam is relatively difficult to machine. To avoid deformation and cracking, requires long and careful drying..
Density: about 750 kg / m3.
Hardness: about 3.5.
Botanical name – Pirus communis, pink family.
German name – Birnbaum, English – Pear, Italian – Pero.
Distributed throughout Europe, especially in Central and South. Sapwood and mature wood differ little and have a pinkish tint. The texture is fine, the pores and the pattern of the annual rings are poorly expressed. The wood is of medium hardness and density. The pear has a strong tendency to warp and must therefore be dried very slowly..
Density: 700 – 750 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Cantlyea Ridley.
Latin name – Daru (Garu).
It grows in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, southern Malaysia, Sumatra, etc.). The color of the wood is golden beige or golden pink, the arrangement of the fibers on the cut is uniform. The wood is heavy, very hard and durable, resistant to moisture. Daru has a pleasant, persistent scent (similar to sandalwood). Daru is a very hard, beautiful and resistant to external influences tree, but its supplies to the European market are very limited.
Botanical name – Quercus sp.pl., beech family.
German name – Eiche, English – Oak, Italian – Quercia Rovere.
Widely distributed in Europe, Asia and America, it is a traditional breed for Russia for the manufacture of parquet and board floors. Differs in great variety, because has a total of about 200 varieties. The sapwood of the oak is light yellow. Mature wood has shades ranging from light brown to yellowish brown with a beautiful texture on the svez. It is strong, durable and resistant to external influences. Over time, the oak darkens a little, which gives a shade of noble antiquity to a long-term used, but well-groomed floor. Oak wood dries relatively slowly, with accelerated drying it is prone to cracking.
Density: on average about 700 kg / cubic meter.
Hardness: 3.7 – 3.9.
Botanical name – Afzelia africana.
German, Italian names – Doussie, English – Afzelia.
It grows throughout tropical West Africa. Mature wood of old trees is red-brown in color. It is very resistant to external influences and is well suited in cases where significant changes in microclimatic conditions are possible during operation. Very similar in properties to merbau. The wood is decorative, well polished and polished. When choosing adhesives and varnishes for it, it must be borne in mind that dussie contains a significant amount of oily substances.
Density: 800 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Chlorophora excelsa.
German name – Kambala, English and Italian – Iroko.
It grows in all zones of tropical West Africa, is one of the most widespread African wood species. The sapwood is narrow, gray. Mature wood is yellowish-brown, partially similar to teak, gradually darkens in the air. Flounder is resistant to changes in microclimate, to various wood pests. It is often used as a substitute for teak..
Density: 650 – 750 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Castanea sativa, beech family.
German name – Edelkastanie, English – Sweet chestnut, Italian – Castagno.
The chestnut is native to Asia, but is currently cultivated throughout Europe, especially in the Mediterranean area. Mature wood – medium brown, gradually darkens over time. The texture of the chestnut is almost the same as that of the oak, but it lacks the middle rays (‘mirror’). It lends itself well to processing. Tends to crack and warp when dry.
Density: 600 – 720 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Koompassia malaccensis.
Latin name – Kempas.
Grows in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, etc.). The color of the wood is bright, immediately striking: from golden-reddish to dark orange. The cut texture is relatively even, with lighter longitudinal veins. Differs in high hardness and density, in favorable conditions (without access to moisture and in the presence of air exchange) it can be operated for a very long time. Little resistant to moisture. In general, along the thickness of the trunk, the structure of the wood fibers is very heterogeneous, therefore, during processing, the wood piles, but it lends itself quite well to grinding and drilling.
Density: about 700 kg / m3 and higher.
Botanical name – Acer sp.pl., maple family.
German name – Ahorn, English – Maple, Italian – Acero.
Grows in temperate zones throughout Europe, America, the Far East and other regions. The wood is almost white in color, sometimes with a slightly yellowish tint. Sapwood and mature wood practically do not differ. Maple turns yellow over time. Maple wood is a sophisticated interior decoration material that creates a contrasting backdrop for dark furnishings. Maple is prone to cracking, so it requires very careful adherence to the drying regime.
Density: 530 – 650 kg / m3.
Hardness: varies within a very wide range, the highest has Canadian maple – up to 4.8.
Botanical name – Coumarouna Odorata.
German, English, Italian names – Cumary.
It grows in South America, in the Amazon basin. The wood is golden brown with darker slightly wavy longitudinal veins, finely porous, very dense. Resistance to external influences – medium.
Density: 1100 kg / cubic meter.
It grows mainly on the island of Celebes (Sulawesi) in Southeast Asia, where the second name comes from. The color of Kumier is very close to Kempas, but has a more pronounced texture and wavy lines of wood grain on a longitudinal cut. Kumiera wood is heavy and hard, but it lends itself well to mechanical processing, well polished and varnished. It is well suited for the manufacture of floors or their individual elements in artistic installations, as well as for the manufacture of carved wooden products.
Botanical name – Tabebuia ipe.
German, Italian names – Ipe, English – Guaycan.
Grows in all states of Central and South America, especially in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil. Sapwood is red-gray, mature wood is olive-gray, in places with alternating light and dark areas. Darkens over time when exposed to light. The wood is very heavy, durable, contains oily substances. Easy to dry, but has a significant tendency to warp.
Density: about 900 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Swietenia candollei.
German name – Echtes Mahagoni, English – American mahogany, Italian – Mogano.
The name ‘True Mahogany’ only applies to varieties native to Central America. Wood from Africa, similar in properties, has other names, in particular, zipo (bot. Entandrophragma utile; German, Italian Sipo). The sapwood is light yellow, almost colorless, the mature wood is reddish-brown. The texture and structure of wood fibers are very diverse. The wood is durable, very well polished, resistant to external influences.
Density: 620 – 650 kg / m3.
Latin name – Merbau.
It grows in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines). African breed, very close in properties to the merbau – Dussia. The main color of merbau is brown, from light to dark brown, in places with yellow veins interspersed. The wood contains oily substances in the pores, is very hard, resistant to moisture, and does not dry out much. Due to these properties, merbau is used, in particular, for the construction of decks and finishing of premises on ships and yachts. In parquet floors, both in terms of its properties and aesthetically, merbau is very well combined with oak. During operation, the merbau darkens (especially the lighter areas), as a result of which the color of the wood as a whole evens out.
Density: 840 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Cuibourtia arnodiana.
German, English and Italian names – Mutenye.
It grows in tropical West Africa. The mature wood is light brown to olive brown with deep purple rays, it is shiny and very decorative. Well suited for the manufacture of furniture and parquet. Turbidity is relatively hard, resistant to stress and deformation. When dried, it practically does not crack or warp.
Density: 800 – 900 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Olea europea, olive family.
German name – Olivenholz, English – Olive tree, Italian – Olivo.
It grows mainly in Southern Europe and areas of Asia close to it. The sapwood is light brown, later darkens a little. Mature wood is yellow-white, sometimes with a reddish tint, with characteristic irregular dark rays. The olive tree has a fine texture, very decorative, dense, little subject to drying out. Sands very well and gives a beautiful smooth surface.
Density: 850 – 950 kg / m3.
Hardness: about 6.0.
Botanical name – Alnus sp.pl., birch family.
German name – Erle, English – Alder, Italian – Ontano.
Grows throughout Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. Sapwood and mature wood differ little: they are light or have a reddish-orange tint. Brown areas are often found in the central part of the trunk. Alder darkens when exposed to air. The structure of the wood is fine and uniform. It is not very resistant to fungi and pests, but it lends itself well to impregnation. In drying, alder is one of the most deformation-resistant rocks..
Density: 420 – 640 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Juglas regia, nut family.
German name – Nussbaum, English – Walnut, Italian – Noce.
It grows everywhere. Main regions: Southern Europe, Asia, America. The sapwood is light, mature wood is brown-gray, with darker patches. Depending on the climate and soil, the color and structure of wood changes significantly, but it is always very decorative and has long been widely used for interior decoration and furniture production. The walnut is relatively hard, but it is quite easy to process. It is resistant to deformation and cracking during drying.
Density: 600 – 650 kg / m3.
Hardness: about 5.0.
Botanical name – Pterocarpus soyauxii.
German name – Afrikanish Padouk, English – African Padouk, Italian – Padouk africano.
It grows in Cameroon, Spanish Guinea, Zaire, Nigeria and Angola. Mature wood is coral red, but gradually darkens. The structure of the wood is straight grained, so it is easy to process. Paduk is very resistant to mechanical stress (pressure) and external influences. Dries easily but requires slow drying.
Density: 750 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia javanica.
German name – Ostindisch Palisander, English – Indian rosewood, Italian – Palissandro India.
It grows in East India, Indonesia, Thailand, Ceylon and Java. The tree is very large, reaching 25m in height and 1.5m in diameter. Sapwood and ripe wood differ dramatically. The sapwood is narrow, grayish-white, sometimes with a pinkish tinge. Ripe wood is very dark (dark brown) with lighter longitudinal veins, may have a subtle purple or lilac hue. The cut shows the exits of numerous pores (channels) in the form of small black dots or dashes. It is characterized by high hardness and strength, but at the same time it lends itself well to machining, grinding and polishing. Drying rosewood is very difficult because when this process is accelerated, intense cracking occurs.
Density: up to 1000 kg / cubic meter.
Botanical name – Bowdichia virgilioides (Diplotropis purpurea).
German, English and Italian names – Sucupira.
It grows in South America, mainly in the Amazon basin. The sapwood is narrow and almost colorless. Mature wood has beautiful reddish-brown tones interspersed with light or yellowish veins. The wood is very heavy, durable, contains oily substances, and is not damaged by pests. It is relatively difficult to process, but it is well grinded and polished. Drying should be done very slowly, as otherwise the wood jars.
Density: 850 – 1100 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Tectona grandis.
German, English and Italian names – Teak.
It grows in India, Indonesia, Burma and the surrounding region, as well as in East Africa. The wood is golden brown with dark blotches or patches, the texture is well defined, the direction of the grain is even or slightly wavy. It has a high content of oily substances and therefore practically does not rot and can persist for hundreds of years under favorable conditions. Teak lends itself well to all types of machining. It is very resistant to loads and external influences and therefore has long been used in shipbuilding..
Density: 550 – 750 kg / m3.
Botanical name – Eucalyptus.
German, English names – Eucalyptus, Italian – Eucalitto.
It grows mainly in Australia, especially near the coast. Jarrah (Latin Jarrah) is the trade name of one of more than 500 varieties of Australian eucalyptus, characterized by an especially bright color (all shades from strawberry to dark red). Over time, the jarra darkens and its color can acquire very different shades. The wood is very hard and durable, resistant to all types of pests. It is difficult to process, but it is very well grinded and polished. When it dries quickly, warps, twisting in the direction of the grain.
Density: 820 – 850 kg / m3.
Hardness: about 6.0.
Botanical name – Fraxinus excelsior, oilseed family.
German names – Esche, English – Ash, Italian – Frassino.
It grows mainly in central Europe, although there are American and Japanese varieties of ash. The wood is light, slightly yellowish, with a well-defined characteristic pattern of texture on the cut. Sapwood and mature wood practically do not differ. Ash is superior in hardness to oak, but at the same time it is very elastic and therefore is often used for sports facilities. It lends itself well to mechanical processing. Ash is prone to cracking, so it must be dried very slowly and carefully..
Density: on average about 700 kg / cubic meter.
Hardness: 4.0 – 4.1.
Botanical name – Hymenaea courbaril.
German, Italian names – Courbaril, English – West Indian locust.
It grows in tropical Central and South America from Mexico to the Amazon basin. The sapwood is grayish-white, relatively wide. Mature wood has very beautiful and decorative tones ranging from orange-brown to purple and dark brown. The wood is heavy, durable, hard and yet relatively elastic. It is difficult to process, but it is sanded and polished almost to a mirror finish. When sanding, in some cases, the color of the pores of the wood may appear from almost white to yellow-lemon. Drying should be done very slowly to avoid cracking..
Density: 840 kg / cubic meter.