In order for the door to close itself, a door closing device must be installed on it. The simplest such device is a spring. To make the door close smoothly and quietly, a door closer is installed, which is based on the same spring placed in a metal case filled with special oil. The door closing speed is changed by the control valves.
The principle of operation of the closer is quite simple: when opening, a certain force is applied to the door, which is transmitted through the lever arm, the output axis of the closer and the piston to the spring and compresses it. Moreover, when the piston moves, the oil flows through the check valve into that part of the closer body, which is released by the piston. When the door is closed, the spring expands and pushes the piston – the oil flows in the opposite direction. This overflow itself goes through the channels of the hydraulic system, in certain places of which adjusting screws are installed. By changing the size of the channel section, you can change the closing speed and the magnitude of the damping force when the door is opened. By the way, in some models there is one more valve: for example, to adjust the door closing delay (between 90 and 70 degrees) or to create an additional “latch” (closing force at the last 15 – 7 degrees). For floor springs, damping is achieved by a special shape of the pivot axis, using mechanical damping of door movement.
The location of the closer depends on where the door opens (from oneself or to itself) – it is installed in the upper part of either the door frame or the fold itself. Moreover, it can be with a link arm or with a sliding arm. If the door opens in both directions (in places of mass visits), a floor closer is used. Since it is mounted in the floor under the door, its advantage is stealth..
Model selection and installation of the closer
Before deciding on the brand of the door closer, you must select its model:
When the choice of the closer model is made, the installation must be performed correctly. At this stage, installers take into account the recommendations of the manufacturer, the design of the door, and its weight. With the correct installation of the closer, the door, open at 90 °, will close evenly, smoothly. Imported door closers (and some domestic ones) have 2 ranges for adjusting the closing speed, when at the end of the movement (about 20 °) there is a “latch” or slowdown of the door movement (depending on the adjustment you have chosen). During operation, the closer must be periodically adjusted. With proper operation, it is enough to make adjustments only with a significant change in the ambient temperature – 2-4 times a year.
It should be borne in mind that the efficiency of the door closer largely depends on the quality of the door hinge and the quality of the hinges, and it will not work well if the door is installed skewed, and the hinges are rusted or embedded. It is also not recommended to install too powerful closers on light and narrow doors. Since the more the door closer closes the door, the more difficult it is to open it..
Correct operation of the door closer
What is “correct operation”? Let’s define it this way: you need “not to interfere with the closer to do his job.” In this case, it is impossible:
- “Help” the door to close faster or slower (pull or hold);
- put any objects under the door (as a rule, when they bring in or take out things, ventilate the entrance, etc.) – there are special models for this purpose
- hang, roll on the door (for children) or on the closer bars
- If these simple rules are not followed, then the oil seals in the closer deteriorate, the piston will wear out, the gears break and oil flows out. Repairing such closers does not return them to their normal state, but can only be used as a temporary measure until a new one is purchased..
Additional option – Hold-open
Fixing the door in the open position
Very often situations arise when the door must be kept open for a while: carrying things, airing, cleaning the room, etc. If a door closer is installed on the door, then in such cases it is necessary to prop it up with a stool or brick. Some comrades begin to disassemble the lever, which often leads to its breakdown. In order to avoid such situations, you can purchase and install a door closer with the hold-open option, complete with a lever that allows you to fix the door in the open position. You can adjust the position of the door, in which it will be fixed, according to your wishes..
Usually you open the door no more than 80 °. In this case, the door is installed in the corner of the room and does not open wider than 100 °. In this case, open the door 90-95 ° and tighten the latch. Now, if you open the door less than 90 °, then it will close normally. And if you open it a little wider, the door will lock and will be open until you slightly pull it towards you to release it from the lock mode. At the same time, the latch will serve as a limiter and will not allow the door to hit the wall. For more details on the installation diagram, see the instructions attached to the closer.
Text: dvdov.ru, profautomat.ru