Door installation begins with the manufacture of the door frame. Such boxes for stone and brick houses are made of boards with a thickness of about 50-60 mm and a width of 100 mm. Prepared and planed parts are attached to each other with spikes, while strictly observing the right angle.
During installation, it is necessary to ensure that the top and bottom boards are located strictly horizontally, and the side boards are strictly vertical. After the door frame is aligned and installed, it must be secured.
The door frame is attached to the walls with thick long nails or steel pins. If the walls of the house are made of concrete or brick, it is quite difficult, and sometimes even impossible, to drive a nail or a pin into them, therefore, holes are drilled for nails in the attachment points and wooden plugs are inserted into them – subsequently, fasteners for the Doorway will be driven into them.
When installing doors in the house, you need to remember that thresholds are made only in external doorways and when moving from an unheated room (corridor) to a heated one (room). Instead of a threshold, you can simply raise a little (2-3 cm) the floor in the room relative to the corridor floor.
The above description applies to the installation of external doors. The inner doors are less massive than the outer ones, and the frame for them does not consist of four (two side, one upper and one lower) bars, but of three. There is no lower horizontal bar in the design, that is, there is no threshold.
Internal doors are also fastened in a slightly different way. They are secured with thick nails. The gaps between the box and the wall are closed with platbands.
After installing the door frame, you need to start hanging the door itself.
To begin with, it is adjusted to the size of the door frame, rounding off its end side. It is hung on the hinges and the excess is marked out, removed from the hinges and cut off. When the door is finally fitted, it is hung permanently.
Hinges are selected by size. They are fastened only with screws, which should fit as tightly as possible into the holes in the hinge, and the heads of the screws should be flush with the cards.
Hinges for hanging doors are hinged and semi-hinged. Both those and others consist of two parts – halves and a rod (axis). The hinge hinges can be either removable (the rod is removed from them), or blind. Half-hinges can only be removable.
Removable hinges are considered more convenient. In order to reduce friction between the cards, a bronze or brass ring is put on the rod. The size of the hinges itself depends on what size the door will be..
There are several types of doors. Single-floor doors have a leaf width of 850 mm, one-and-a-half doors consist of two canvases of different widths, and two doors of the same width make up double doors. The average height of such doors is 2,000 mm.
In addition, the door can be lattice, paneled, glazed. Blade thickness ranges from 30 to 50 mm.
It is necessary to fasten door frames in openings very thoroughly. The gaps between the wall and the box must be caulked, this will protect the House from blowing out and getting inside precipitation. There are two ways to caulk the cracks between the box and the wall..
The first way
This is the dry way. The gap is filled first with dry tow, slag or glass wool and well sealed with a screwdriver or knife.
This method is wet. The same materials are used here as in the first case. But the filler is pre-wetted in a liquid diluted gypsum solution.
DOOR WITH KEYS
One of the varieties is a dowel door. It is durable, fairly easy to manufacture, and non-thermal. It is collected from planed boards with a thickness of 40-50 mm. On the edges of the boards, choose quarters or grooves. The boards prepared in this way are laid in a row, adjusted finally, aligned and pressed, then risks are applied to select the grooves for the dowels. The grooves are selected on a cone. Their depth is 1 / 2-1 / 4 of the entire thickness of the board. At the base, the grooves should be 50 mm wide, and at the top – 35 mm.
The keys can be conventional and overlapped, have a trapezoidal shape. They are made of bars, the thickness of which is equal to the thickness of the door boards, and the length is greater than its width by 100-150 mm.
Thick dowels are much more comfortable than thin ones, with them the door warps less. First, the door is assembled with dowels, then it is examined and the protruding places are marked, after which the dowels are knocked out and the boards are adjusted again. Then the dowels are driven in again, but already to the stop. The dowels can be driven dry into the boards, but you can also put them on casein glue.
DOOR FROM BARS
This type of door can be solid or lattice – it all depends on its purpose. Finished bars are glued to each other with the planed sides, the front sides are leveled and pasted over with plywood or fiberboard sheets.
Such a door is assembled from simple bars or with chamfers and kalevki. Kalevki can be selected on separate bars. They form a groove 15-20 mm deep, into which panels are subsequently inserted..
If the door is intended for internal installation, the panels should be 8 to 22 mm thick, if the door is external – up to 50 mm. Panels are made of plywood, boards, fiberboard or chipboard.
Doors are usually made somewhat larger than door frames, so that later the door can be maximally adjusted to the size of the frame. The excess wood is removed, and only after that the door is hung on the hinges, then handles, locks, latches, etc. are attached to it..
The glazed door leaf consists of strapping bars, which form a frame, and intersecting slabs inserted into it. Glasses are inserted between the frame and the beads using glazing beads.
Following the fashion, sliding doors can be installed in the house. Of course, this option is not suitable for outdoor use. Sliding doors are only interior doors. You can make them yourself.
The lighter the sliding door is, the easier it is to handle. The lightest is a frame door. It is assembled from bars 30 mm thick and 40 mm wide and veneered on both sides with thin film faced plywood.
The lower and upper bars of the door frame for the sliding door are made wider, since the rollers are attached to them. The diameter of the rollers can be any. The rollers move along the guide, which is fixed to the floor with screws.
You can install a door with stained glass windows. Glasses for stained-glass windows are suitable both transparent and colored, both smooth and corrugated. A stained glass door is only suitable for installation between rooms, and not for outdoor areas.
Accordion sliding doors are very popular nowadays. They are perfect for the interior of any home, are strong, durable and easy to use..
As soon as you finish installing the doors, you can start decorating the doorway itself. This can be done using platbands – external and internal. As a rule, the outer platbands are more massive and beautiful. Sometimes they are carved.
Usually platbands are made of pine or spruce planks, sometimes from linden. Linden platbands are made if decorative carving is supposed to be on them. The thickness of the wood is approximately 20-30 mm.
Internal platbands are usually 75-150 mm wide, but at the same time they must be 20-50 mm wider than the door frame bars.
From the front side, the platbands can be given any shape by choosing moldings on them. And on the back side, they must necessarily have grooves 5 mm deep, so that they fit more tightly to the wall and to the door frame.
At the corners, the platbands are connected to the “mustache”, for which they are cut off at an angle of 45 ° using a bevel or a miter box. To the door frame itself, the platbands are attached with nails with flattened heads. They are driven in at a distance of 50-75 mm from each other. Where the hinges are located, the platbands should retreat from the edge of the door frame by 10-15 mm, that is, by the thickness of the hinge; in places where there are no loops – by 6-10 mm. They are attached to the door frames before the baseboards are installed..
Outer platbands sometimes have carved or overlaid details. The thread can be both through and raised.
After the installation of the outer door is completed, the platbands are reinforced, you need to take care of the lock.
The mortise lock should be 80-110 cm from the floor. The first step is to cut a nest under the lock and under the front bar in the bar. This is done with a chisel or chisel so that the front bar is flush with the rebate of the bar.
Then you need to insert the lock itself and check the tightness of the front strip. Next, remove the lock, measure the distance from the key to the bar and transfer it to the door bar in such a way that when cutting a hole in the bar, it is located exactly opposite the lock key.
It is better to cut a hole for the lock not on one, but on both sides of the bar in turn. The hole for the key is best drilled with a thick drill. Then you need to insert the lock itself, screw it in with screws, but not to the limit (batter), and check its operation with a key. Opposite the bolt in the door frame or in the door itself, a nest with a depth of no more than 5 mm and a size slightly larger than the size of the slot in the strike plate is cut down. Then this nest at the level of the bar is smeared with soft clay, plasticine or putty and smoothed out. After that, the door is closed, pressed tightly, and by turning the key, a bolt is pulled out, which leaves an imprint on the plasticine or clay. After that, the door must be opened, attach the striker plate with a slot to the print so that it is exactly in the center of the slot.
Then the bar must be pressed tightly, traced around the contour with a pencil, leaving the risk, along which subsequently choose the wood for the bolt and latch bar.
After the lock is installed, handles, chains and bolts are attached to the door.
When the outer door is installed, it is immediately insulated. This is not difficult to do with the help of special seals that can be purchased in the store or made by yourself..
They are done as follows. A strip of leatherette is taken with a width of 100-120 mm and a length that corresponds to the length of three bars of the door frame (two vertical and one horizontal). You will also need a strip of foam rubber 3-4 mm thick and the same length as the strip of leatherette.
Then the foam rubber is wrapped in leatherette. Leatherette strip is held together at the junction.
The sealant is nailed along the door frame along two vertical bars and the upper horizontal one, closing the gap between the door frame and the door.
The outer door must always open outward. So it will not be possible to knock it out. The best option for a sturdy and reliable door is metal or double. The outer one is metal, and the inner one is made of any material.
In addition, it is necessary to immediately install reliable locks with several degrees of protection on the outer door. The entrance door should also have a strong steel lock or a secure chain on the inside that cannot be opened from the outside. A peephole is also required in the door. To date, the best is the peephole with a panoramic view of 200 °.
Noise from neighboring living quarters can be avoided by soundproofing the outer door. To do this, you can use foam, felt, batting, or even an old blanket. Sound-absorbing pads are made of this material..
According to the size of the door, a frame is made from pine strips with a thickness of approximately 20 mm and a width of approximately 30 mm, which is then attached to the door using transverse strips..
Holes are drilled in the doors, with screws; attach the slab to the frame. The holes left by the screws can be filled with window putty, smoothed with sandpaper and covered with oil paint or a suitable varnish.
The working tool for making and installing doors will take a little, and it is quite simple.
Ax needed to fit the door to the opening, as well as when sampling wood from boards. It must be attached to a secure, comfortable handle and sharpened..
Saws useful for crosscutting boards and bars. You may need two-handed, one-handed, bow and mixed saws. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the finer the saw teeth, the easier it is to saw with it, however, labor productivity due to this decreases.
Several drills of various thicknesses will be necessary for drilling round holes.
You will also need and plows – for planing wood, when the door will be adjusted to the opening. All plows have different names, the shape of the piece of iron and the length of the block. The glands are single and double. The length of the blocks of the scherhebel, plane and other plows – 250 mm, and the jointer – 700 mm.
Needed tongue for grooving, molding – for making curly elements on parts, chisels and folding – for culling folds, quarters, etc..
Gage – a block with one or two rulers, pegs at the ends and a wedge that fixes the rulers. With its help, lines-risks are drawn on bars and boards..
To check the verticality and horizontalness of the installed boards, weight, level and spirit level. Weight – a load suspended from a long and strong cord. They check the verticality of the installed parts.
Spirit level – two slats, short and long, with braces and weight.
Malka – square with a movable blade fixed with a screw. With the help of a bevel, they build and check angles.