- Requirements of state and departmental standards
- Design of water supply and heating systems
- Cold and hot water supply schemes
- Heating schemes
- Selection of reinforced plastic pipes
- Installation of water supply and heating systems
- Installation methods
- Tools for the installation of metal-polymer pipes
- Recommendations for the installation of a pipeline made of metal-polymer pipes
Metal-polymer pipes are increasingly replacing metal pipes in the construction and repair of water supply and heating systems for private houses. In this article, we will share the regulatory requirements of state standards, talk about the main points in the design and installation of water supply systems.
In order not to subsequently experience the inconvenience of incorrectly performed pipe routing and not to redo the work, spending additional finances, you need to check the correctness of the decisions made at the project stage, and when buying pipes and fittings, study the marking and follow the planned plan exactly.
When designing, take into account all connected heating, hot water and plumbing equipment, sections laid horizontally and vertically, floor layout.
An example of a project for a heating and water supply system for a two-story house: 1 – cold water supply; 2 – ball valve; 3 – self-cleaning mechanical filter; 4 – water meter; 5 – fine filter; 6 – gas boiler; 7 – gas supply; 8 – expansion tank of the boiler; 9 – boiler safety group; 10 – indirect heating boiler; 11 – boiler safety group; 12 – hydraulic accumulator; 13 – check valve; 14 – hot water circulation pump; 15 – collector; 16 – heating circulation pumps; 17 – collector heating cabinets; 18 – first floor heating radiators; 19 – heating radiators of the second floor; 20 – hot water consumers; 21 – warm floor
Requirements of state and departmental standards
Before starting the design of water supply and heating systems, we advise you to study the recommendations and requirements set out in the following standards:
- SP 40-103-98;
- SP 41-102-98;
- SP 40-102-2000;
- VSN 69–97.
They set out:
- basic piping diagrams for the organization of systems, including “warm floors”;
- heating devices connection nodes;
- connections to steel risers on sliding and fixed supports;
- installation of expansion joints (thermal elongation);
- device for laying pipes through walls;
- selection of the type of pipes according to pressure and temperature;
- pipe characteristics;
- methods of connecting metal-plastic pipes to each other;
- installation requirements;
- rules for conducting hydraulic tests.
All questions and nuances of project development and installation of systems that we did not cover in the article, you can clarify according to the above regulatory documents, as well as GOST R 53630-2009.
Design of water supply and heating systems
In practice, hot water supply and heating are often designed at the same time, since in some schemes they are connected by a heat generator. In addition, cold and hot water pipelines are often laid next to heating pipes and hidden in the same boxes..
Cold and hot water supply schemes
The water supply of a private house can be mainline and autonomous. In the case of a centralized water supply, it is enough to install one mud filter at the inlet, if the purity of the water meets the standards and requirements of the connected sanitary equipment. If the water supply is autonomous, for example, from a well, water treatment equipment should be provided, installed in a caisson or directly in the house.
Cold water distribution around the house is performed:
- to the boiler;
- water heater;
- faucets in the kitchen and bathroom;
- to the toilet and bidet.
Water distributions, cold and hot, are made in parallel with pipelines according to one of the common schemes:
a – tee wiring diagram; b – collector wiring diagram
Tee – pipes are diverted from one line to each consumer through tees, the collector system involves separate inlets from the riser or distribution device (combs).
The heating source for a private house can be an electric or fuel (gas, fuel oil, pellets, coal) boiler. It can be double-circuit and heats water for heating and hot water supply in separate circuits, or single-circuit, while the water heater can be built in on the return pipeline or be autonomously powered from the mains.
Basic wiring diagrams for heating a private house:
One pipe system
The one-pipe scheme is suitable for heating small houses with no more than 6–8 radiators installed in series. A two-pipe version is more expensive, but it is much better suited for heating a large house, since it provides the same air heating in all rooms. Collector system is the best solution for wiring on two or more floors.
Two-pipe system options: A – dead-end; B – passing; С – collector
Battery connection options are also different and can be side or bottom.
a – two-pipe system with side connection; b – one-pipe system with side connection; c – two-pipe system with bottom connection; d – one-pipe system with bottom connection
There are also systems with natural and pressure (forced) circulation, however, the standards for metal-polymer pipes recommend their use in pressure networks using pumps.
Selection of reinforced plastic pipes
The speed of water in the pipes should not be less than 0.1 m / s, otherwise the financial costs of the pipeline will be excessive, and higher than 1.2 m / s, as this will require the purchase of pumping equipment with excess pressure.
Preliminarily, the pipe diameters for all systems are taken based on the expected flow rate and medium speed – 0.4–0.6 m / s in order to avoid significant hydraulic resistance, especially with a large number of shut-off and control valves. However, if the pressure in the mains with a centralized water supply is very high, in some cases they even install a reducing pressure reducer, especially in front of the water heater or boiler..
Most often, in the systems of private houses, pipes with a diameter of 16–63 mm are used.
For distributing cold water, metal-polymer pipes can be used at pressures up to 25 bar (25 atm), and for distributing heating and hot water – up to 10 bar (10 atm).
Advice!When choosing metal-plastic pipes for heating, keep in mind the temperature restrictions. As a rule, the water temperature during operation should not exceed 95 ° С, however, the permissible short-term overheating in various brands ranges from 100-125 ° С.
The main manufacturers of metal-polymer pipes and fittings on the Russian market:
- VALTEC, Italy;
- HENCO, Belgium;
- OVENTROP, Germany;
- UPONOR, Finland;
- KERMI, Germany;
- COMAP, France;
- ALTSTREAM, Italy;
- REHAU, Germany;
- PRANDELLI, Italy.
Installation of water supply and heating systems
Installation of pipelines made of metal-polymer pipes should be carried out at a temperature above 10 ° C, after the end of all gas welding in the room.
There are two ways to perform editing: open and hidden..
Concealed routing is more preferable for metal-polymer pipes and is recommended by regulatory documents. Exception: installation of pipelines where accidental mechanical damage is impossible.
In case of hidden installation, before starting the wiring, you need to prepare the gasket channel, install fasteners and supports. For open installation, all finishing work must be completed in advance. For the inspection of the joints of pipe sections and fittings, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of access.
Tools for the installation of metal-polymer pipes
When performing wiring, you will need to cut, bend, connect individual sections of metal-plastic pipes with fittings and it is better to do this with a special tool. Lovers of “their instrument” can purchase a set or separately, others can try to rent or borrow them for the period of repair from familiar craftsmen.
In order not to spoil their multilayer structure and not crush the profile when cutting pipes, you need to use special scissors or a manual roller pipe cutter, which is especially recommended for large-diameter pipes.
To restore a perfectly round cross-section and remove burrs, a calibrator is required, which, when connected with fittings, can slightly increase the pipe diameter. For bending pipes, use a spring pipe bender (external or internal).
When using crimp fittings in the joints, press tongs are required, and when welding joints, a special apparatus with nozzles: manual or semi-automatic. Compression fittings are installed using wrenches, and the push-fitting connection does not require any special tools at all, except for a knife.
Recommendations for the installation of a pipeline made of metal-polymer pipes
When installing such pipes, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- Use pipes and fittings from the same manufacturer for better compatibility.
- If the coil of pipes was stored at temperatures below 10 ° C, it must be kept warm for at least a day before installation. When unwinding the coil, follow the markings so that the pipe does not twist along the axis.
- If you leave a piece of pipe unconnected, close its edges with a plug to protect it from dirt, dust, liquids.
- Do not use an unsuitable tool. If the section of the pipe is strongly deformed during cutting, cut off the damaged section with scissors or a pipe cutter for metal-polymer pipes.
- Take care of compensating for thermal expansion by means of expansion joints or natural pipe bends.
- For concealed installation recommended for metal-plastic pipes, it is recommended to use one-piece press fittings. Do not close the boxes until the end of the system test.
- Provide protection of pipes from temperature, mechanical or chemical influences.
- Pipelines laid over an unheated room must be insulated to reduce heat loss and protect against condensation.
- When using metal-polymer pipes for underfloor heating, it is recommended to lay the wiring in a protective corrugated pipe. Concrete screed can be performed only after performing hydraulic tests – testing pipelines under pressure. If a leak is not found anywhere, leave the pipes at a pressure of at least 3 atm. The thickness of the concrete above the pipes must not be less than 30 mm.
- When laying long sections, take care of the fasteners and supports, not forgetting about the thermal expansion of the pipeline.