- Periodic examination chart
- Boiler room, ventilation and chimney
- Heating unit maintenance
- Pre-start service in autumn
- Flushing and preventive maintenance of the piping system
Of all the domestic engineering systems, heating has the greatest complexity. Not only correct calculation and installation are important, but also work to maintain performance, and periodic “healing” activities. Today we want to tell you about the comprehensive maintenance of heating systems for a private house.
Periodic examination chart
Uninterrupted operation of heating requires vigilant monitoring of the state of the system. In addition to unconditional general maintenance measures, urgent actions may also be required, and in order to plan the next repair season, you need to have a complete understanding of the health of all units, without exception.
Periodic inspection is an invariable part of the complex for servicing the equipment of the generating (boiler room) and distribution (collectors, pipelines, radiators) parts of the heating system. The priority in priority is given to the distribution part as the most voluminous and not serviced during operation. In addition, in the event of malfunctioning valves, connections, fittings and heating devices, normal commissioning of boiler equipment will be extremely difficult..
The inspection of the distribution network is carried out annually and begins with an assessment of the condition of welds and other pipeline connections. The heating main, starting from the boiler room, is checked for leaks, traces of limestone or rust, damage. The quality of packaging and the degree of tightening of threaded and press fittings are evaluated. Despite the apparent stability, pipelines are always in motion, expanding linearly from periodic heating, which is not without consequences for densely packed joints. The conditional passage of the pipes also needs to be checked by selectively unpacking the fittings on the radiators and the manifold.
Inspection of the boiler room includes a monthly check of the chimney with a flame, a simulation of an open hearth to check the sensors of flame, smoke and carbon monoxide. Once a year, it is necessary to check the tightness of the gas pipelines with soapy water.
Boiler room, ventilation and chimney
The general maintenance of the boiler room equipment is carried out at an annual frequency. This part includes internal inspection and / or development of the shut-off valve stroke; stuffing box seals are also replaced in serviced dampers and valves..
At the same time, they clean the filters of the circulation pump and water treatment systems. Including all other boiler piping fittings are checked and calibrated: pressure reducers, de-airing valves and automation.
Special measures for the maintenance of the boiler room include work on the internal arrangement and repair, replacement of faulty components and commissioning. Depending on the type of fuel used, boilers may require checking the tightness of the combustion chamber and the tightness of the flue duct connections..
One of the most specific maintenance elements is the revision of gate and shut-off gearboxes, automatic fuel supply systems and pressure replenishment systems..
In electric heaters, the heating element and temperature probe should be descaled every 2–3 years..
The air supply system is a separate item in the service plan. If there is a fence from the street or its forced injection, both electric motors and the channel system itself require attention. Even the supply channels of passive ventilation will not be superfluous to check for blockages, which occur, for example, when animals settle in them..
Heating unit maintenance
The procedure for servicing heating units is described in the passport documentation attached to them. However, there is also a general list of maintenance work aimed at extending the life of the boiler and maintaining the efficiency at a high level..
In gas boilers, the burner is cleaned, maintenance and adjustment of the elements for preparing the gas-air mixture are carried out. Filters are cleaned, connections are checked for leaks. It is imperative that the actuation is simulated and the tightness of the shut-off valve is checked.
The second point is the inspection and maintenance of the combustion chamber, which is true for boilers with any type of combustible fuel. The heat exchanger, air and draft sensors are cleaned of burns and deposits. The fencing structures of the fire zone are cleaned only at the special request of the manufacturer, in general, this only contributes to the acceleration of corrosion and burning.
In double-circuit boilers with a serviceable boiler, an additional heat exchanger may require descaling. You should also carefully observe the surfaces of the internal chimney channels of pyrolysis boilers (not the entire chimney) and the blades of the smoke exhausters, check them for a decrease in throughput or tightness.
Boiler maintenance work can and even preferably be entrusted to a certified specialist; often this is what the maintenance rules for most units require. Such cooperation will allow to quickly restore work in case of emergency failures and to carry out overhaul of boiler equipment at a reasonable price. A specialist worker will also help fine-tune the system for analyzing the composition of the exhaust gases..
Pre-start service in autumn
Annual inspection and maintenance events are traditionally scheduled for late summer or early fall, when the heating system prepares for a new heating season. But even in operation mode, it is always possible to arrange a planned shutdown, since the whole range of maintenance work and correct start-up does not take much time.
When performing repair work or inspecting the internal parts of the equipment, the water is drained, therefore, before starting, the entire system is filled with a new portion of the coolant. The quality of the water to “charge” the system is of key importance, especially for systems with metal pipes or aluminum radiators. Water must be softened and cleaned of solid particles; in systems with a displacement of more than 400-500 liters, it is recommended to first displace dissolved oxygen from the water.
After filling the system, if it has a closed expansion tank, the standard pressure for the cold state is pumped up, air is removed with the help of Mayevsky taps and bleed valves. It is important that before the water is drained, the fittings in the piping of the circulation pump located above the return flow are closed – this will prevent airing. When the system is completely filled with water, the circulation equipment turns on, after which the heating unit is put into operation.
By heating the supply and return pipes, you need to immediately make sure that there is circulation; at the first stage, it is better to bring the pump to maximum speed. Further, all pipelines and radiators are bypassed, the degree of their heating is checked, and if necessary, adjustment is carried out. If individual batteries have been deflated, they are filled through the lower supply branch pipe, bleeding air through the Mayevsky valve, and after full filling, the upper valve is also opened, starting the circulation.
It is important to remember that filling with fresh water is accompanied by gas formation inside the system, therefore, for the first time – about a week after starting – it is necessary to check the operating pressure and its difference during cooling, or the water level in the open expansion tank. The radiators also have to bleed the gases released from the water.
Flushing and preventive maintenance of the piping system
Blockages inside the heat exchanger and boiler piping are removed either by mechanical cleaning or by complete replacement. These methods are poorly applicable to the distribution part of the system, its nominal size is restored by flushing under pressure using special chemical solvents.
The flushing complex is not easy to carry out on your own, but field teams are willing to do it. Typically, such an event is carried out for systems with a small nominal bore of pipes and a displacement, as well as if replenishment with fresh tap water is periodically carried out. For flushing, branch pipes with shut-off valves are provided on the supply and return pipes.
It makes little sense to wash pipes with a large nominal bore, but this may be required by radiators, collectors and a warm floor system. It is important to remember that flushing non-ferrous metal surfaces (copper pipes, aluminum radiators) can cause accelerated corrosion of the latter. At a minimum, you need to carefully consider the choice of reagents for washing..