- Organization of economical lighting of the site at night (emergency lighting)
- Lighting connection
- Site lighting with garden lamp posts
The article discusses the organization of energy efficient street lighting based on LED built-in lanterns and classic lampposts of low height, provides electrical diagrams, recommendations for installation, power calculation and the choice of the type of street lighting lamps.
Several different types of lighting fixtures can be used to provide energy efficient lighting for an area of the home, which will work independently of each other. For the minimum illumination of the main parts of the courtyard at night, it is economically advantageous to use LED lamps, which are switched on automatically at nightfall. For bright illumination of the paths and the site, it is advisable to use various types of lamps made on the basis of classic incandescent lamps.
Organization of economical lighting of the site at night (emergency lighting)
Area lighting performs several main tasks:
- Allows you to highlight the elements of the building decor.
- Carry out the minimum illumination of the area, necessary to control the absence of strangers on it.
- Allows you to easily navigate the main paths in the dark.
С – emergency lighting lamps
In-built models that use LED matrices to emit light can be used as emergency lighting fixtures.
The dug-in lanterns of this type have a degree of protection IP67, which allows you not to worry if they are completely flooded with water for some time. When placing lamps of this type, it is necessary to ensure that the installation site does not fall below the surrounding area..
The height of H2 can be only 2-3 cm higher than the rest of the area, which will not cause inconvenience when working with a lawn mower.
The laying of electrical connections, if possible, should be done at a depth of at least 30 cm (H1), which reduces the likelihood of damage to the electrical wiring when planting plants and in the process of lawn care. The connecting electric cable must be double insulated and laid in a protective corrugated tube, or better – a metal-plastic or plastic pipe of a suitable diameter.
Advice:in order to highlight the decorative elements of the site using lighting, the lamps can be placed at a slight angle to the elements of interest.
Automatic switching on of luminaires is organized using a photo relay, which are of various types.
The most convenient are ready-made versions of 220 V street photo relays with a built-in switching unit of the required power. Most of the models on the market have IP44 degree of protection, which allows them not to be afraid of being exposed to rain. In the lower part of the photo relay unit, an adjusting screw is provided, which allows you to set such a degree of illumination at which it will operate.
In general, the connection diagram will look like this:
- QS1 – automatic protective switch;
- FS1 – power contact of the photo relay;
- FR1 – photo relay block;
- L1 … L8 – street lamps.
The type of photo relay and protective circuit breaker is determined after calculating the maximum power consumption of the load:
- Rtotal = P1 + P2 + … + Pn
In this case, the power of each individual LED lamp is 5 W, and the constant power consumption of the photo relay does not exceed 0.5 W. The loss of electricity on electrical conductors is negligible. We get:
- Rtotal = 5 x 8 + 0.5 = 40.5 W
The flowing current will be equal to:
- I = P / (U x cos?)
The quantity cos? for incandescent lamps – 1; LED lamps – 0.9 … 1; fluorescent lamps – 0.8 … 0.9, we get:
- I = 40.5 / (220 x 0.9) = 0.2 A
Since at the time of starting the internal electronics built into the lights, an increased current consumption is possible, then for installation we select a standard circuit breaker designed to work with a nominal current of 1 A. The photo relay must switch current daily within 1–5 A (200–600 W load).
Attention: to connect electric lamps, you must use a three-core cable with mandatory grounding of the body of each lamp.
General costs of organizing economical lighting of the site
A type main parameters amount Single item price NDN101 circuit breaker In = 1 A, D, 10kA 1 1000 rubles Outdoor luminaire DeLux GROUND LED 25 IP 67, P = 5 W, U = 220 V 8 RUB 1,800 / pc. Photo relay FR601 IP 44, Rmax = 2200 W, U = 220 V 1 250 rbl. PVS cable 3×1.5 Flexible, copper, 3 conductors with a cross section of 1.5 mm2 double insulated By parcel size and internal wiring 35 rub / m Wavin PE-X / AL / PE-RT metal-plastic pipe Multi-layer, inner diameter 16 mm, wall thickness 2 mm By plot size 50 rub / m
Site lighting with garden lamp posts
For walks and rest in the street at night, it is necessary to establish effective lighting. For these purposes, small lamp posts must be placed around the entire perimeter of the site..
F – lamp posts
It is important to remember that with an increase in the height of the lamp post, the area illuminated by it increases, but at the same time it is necessary to proportionally increase the power of the light-emitting lamps installed in it..
The choice of the type of lamps depends on the overall design of the house and garden, while their height may not exceed 1.4 m.
To optimize the use of lighting in the area under consideration, the lamp posts can be connected as several independent sections:
- Parking lighting – 8 pcs.
- Track lighting – 11 pcs.
- Fountain lighting – 9 pcs.
Such division will reduce the load on the switching elements, which will have a positive effect on the duration of their operation, since the maximum switching power does not exceed 10 A. The ability to turn on and off unclaimed sections can significantly reduce the total cost of electricity.
Since street lamp posts have a low degree of dust and moisture resistance, the use of energy-saving lamps in them is fraught with difficulties caused by oxidation of control boards and unstable operation of electronics at low temperatures. The most appropriate for street lighting, made on the basis of lamp posts, would be the use of classic incandescent lamps.
To protect against overload and short circuit, the power supply of street lighting must be carried out through a protective circuit breaker. Let’s calculate its working current:
- I = (P1 + P2 + … + Pn) / (U x cos?)
The power of each lamp is determined using the power density method. For these purposes, we will take the distance between the posts equal to 3 meters. We take the required illumination (w) in the range of 3-5 W / m2, which corresponds to the lighting standards for adjacent areas.
Let’s calculate the illuminated area of the circle around the lantern. Since a distance of 3 m is taken between the installed lamp tables, the diameter of the light spot must be at least 3 meters:
- S =? x D2 / 4 = 3.14 x 32/4 = 7 m2
The minimum power of one lamp will be equal to:
- P = w x S = 5 x 7 = 35 W
For installation, we select standard lamps with a power of 40 W each.
Determine the current consumption of a fully switched on street lighting:
- I = n x P / (U x cos?) = 28 x 40/220 = 5.1 A
- n is the number of identical lamps;
- cos? – equal to one (since incandescent lamps are installed in the lamps).
Suitable for installation with standard circuit breakers rated for an operating current of 8 or 10 A.
The power supply diagram will look like:
- QS1 – input circuit breaker;
- S1, S2, S3 – three-pole switch;
- L – incandescent lamps installed in lamp posts.
The installation of lampposts depends on the type of factory mounting and may require pouring a concrete foundation through which the conduit tubes will need to be routed.
Recommendations for laying cable connections are similar to the installation of buried luminaires discussed above..
The cost of installed elements
A type main parameters amount Single item price VA 47-29 2P 10A, modular switch IEK In = 10 A (characteristic C) 1 200 rbl. Street lamp MASSIVE 34941 IP 44, Rm = 60 W, U = 220 V, socket type: E27, height 98.5 cm 28 RUB 1,650 / pcs. Photo relay FR601 IP 44, Rmax = 2200 W, U = 220 V 1 250 rbl. PVS cable 3×2.5 Flexible, copper, 3 conductors with a cross section of 2.5 mm2 double insulated By parcel size and internal wiring 45 rub / m Wavin PE-X / AL / PE-RT metal-plastic pipe Multi-layer, inner diameter 16 mm, wall thickness 2 mm By plot size 50 rub / m
Thanks to the advanced capabilities of the resulting street lighting, you can significantly reduce the overall cost of its maintenance. The use of light sensors allows you to turn on and off the minimum lighting without human intervention. Breakdown into sections of lantern lighting eliminates unnecessary electricity costs arising from lighting an unclaimed part of the local area.