Do-it-yourself sewage system in a private house: diagram and device

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Decent living conditions cannot be imagined without a well-equipped bathroom and, accordingly, a drainage system. There are some features when installing a sewage system in 2 or more storey buildings, concerning both the general organization scheme and the specific nuances of installation.

General structure of the sewage system

In multi-storey residential buildings, the sewerage system has a rather complex organization. It is preferable that by the beginning of the installation work a project was drawn up, in which the following should be indicated:

  1. Axonometric layout of pipelines and connection points.
  2. List of plumbing equipment and household appliances that will be connected to the sewage system.
  3. Pipeline capacity, flow direction and slope value in all sections.

Axonometric diagram of the sewage system of a private house

The structure of the system is represented by a tree, from the trunk of which main pipelines diverge, into which connection points are inserted. All branches of the system are located at several levels, conventionally – at the floor level of each floor. The number and length of branches is practically unlimited, however, all of them must have a slope towards the riser of 3% for pipes with a diameter of 50 mm and 2% for pipelines of 110 mm.

In the classic version, only one riser is arranged, to which all branches of the system are connected. If the effluent is discharged into a septic tank, it makes sense to separate the discharge of purely organic effluents and those containing a high concentration of household cleaning agents containing chlorine. Also, the device of two risers may be advisable when equipping large country houses, where more than two bathrooms are located on one floor. In such cases, each riser is connected to its own local treatment plant..

Sewerage scheme in a private house An example of a sewerage scheme in a private house: 1 – knee 90 °; 2 – straight tee 90 °; 3 – internal wiring pipe; 4 – plug; 5 – hatch for cleaning; 6 – non-ventilated riser; 7 – branch pipe; 8 – revision; 9 – ventilated riser

When determining the structure of individual branches, one should be guided by the principle that points with the largest volume of salvo discharge should be located closer to the riser. For example, if you cut a sink or bath drain between the toilet bowl and the riser, then when the tank is drained, a vacuum is formed, which will draw water out of the siphon water seal. It is for this reason that water from toilets is most often discharged directly into the riser.

Riser device

It is reasonable to install the riser immediately after the construction of the building box is completed. On the one hand, this makes it possible to provide basic living conditions at the time of further construction work. On the other hand, sewer pipes can be hidden under a layer of finishing.

The location of the riser must be chosen carefully and in advance, because its position on the plan of the house is strictly tied to the input of the outer part of the sewer. When draining the pipes, they make a lot of noise, so the riser should be placed either in a technical room isolated from the inhabited area, or in a technical well equipped with sound insulation.

The riser should not be walled up tightly, it must have at least one section for which access is provided through a technical hatch. In these places, plumbing revisions are installed – bends with screw plugs. The place of installation of the revision must be chosen so that it provides access to the longest possible section of the pipe, and also so that the room where the hatch is located is spacious enough for maintenance.

Ventilated sewer riserVentilated sewerage system: 1 – outlet to the septic tank; 2 – riser with a diameter of 110 mm; 3 – fan pipe; 4 – deflector

Another requirement for the riser is that it must continue above the tie-in point of the highest branch. This is required for the organization of the so-called waste outlet, due to which the vacuum in the system is compensated, which prevents the discharge of a large volume of water, as well as ventilation of the riser in case of malfunctions of the hydraulic lock siphons. As a rule, the fan outlet of the riser continues to the very roof, where the sewage system is connected to the street through a roof cut with a deflector. It is important that the fan deflector is at least 5 meters from windows and ventilation ducts.

Connection points on floors

Before organizing the branching of the sewer system, you should decide on the location of the connection points. This seemingly trivial task has some rules that ensure both comfortable use of the sewage system and its flawless long-term service. The configuration of the branches is determined primarily by the household organization of the premises..

Typically, there are only two bathrooms on the second floor: one shared and one attached to the bedroom. It is preferable that both of these bathrooms have a common wall, at which the riser is located. At floor level, a cross is cut into the riser with two 110 mm taps and two 50 mm taps. Sinks, bidets and shower stalls are connected to small outlets, and toilets drains to large outlets.

There are more connection points on the ground floor. There is a kitchen here, in which a connection is required for a kitchen sink and a dishwasher, for which it is enough to lead a 50 mm branch of a pipe of arbitrary length from the riser. In the same way, the sewage system is supplied to the laundry, where the washing and drying machines are located. Also, the first floor is characterized by the location of the main bathroom, where the bathroom itself, a sink and a toilet with a bidet are connected, that is, it is convenient to place this room under one of the bathrooms on the second floor or with a small distance. In some houses, a guest toilet can be organized, as a rule, it is placed next to the main bathroom and is connected with one 110 mm outlet for the toilet and one 50 mm for the mini-sink. One of the useful innovations for a modern country house is a sewer supply to the back door, where a grate with a receiving funnel for washing shoes and pets for pets is mounted on the floor.

Sololift in the forced sewerage systemSololift in the forced sewerage system: 1 – sewerage pump (sololift); 2 – plumbing connected to the sewerage; 3 – the height of the rise of sewage is 4–6 m; 4 – sewer riser; 5 – septic tank

If the house has a basement, a sewage system can also be organized in it, combined with the general system. To do this, it is necessary to install a so-called sololift – a lifting pump, through which the drains will rise to the level of the first floor, and be discharged into a common drainage outlet through a tee located below the cross. The drainage line for drains from the basement must be equipped with a non-return valve. The very idea of ​​running a sewage system into the basement may seem dubious, but this makes it possible to place a laundry in an area where the noise from it will not interfere with the tenants, as well as organize a technical or “dirty” wash.

Installation of pipelines

Modern materials for the installation of sewer systems are designed so that not only a professional plumber, but in general anyone who wishes, could cope with the work. However, there is a certain regulation containing the rules and description of the installation process..

The laying of sewer pipes in a private house can be done in two ways. If the floors in the building are monolithic or solid, the pipes are routed at a level above the floor of the upper floor, thus, the connection points are located at a sufficiently significant height, and the pipes themselves are hidden under the sheet cladding of the walls, or in a false box. This approach is acceptable for routing pipes under a sink or washing machine, however, when connecting a bath or a drain in the floor at a considerable distance from the riser, the height of the inlet is unacceptable. In such cases, the pipes are led down through the ceiling, and then pulled to the riser along the shortest path and hidden behind the suspended ceiling structure and enclosed in a sound insulating shell. In the case of frame ceilings, this task is easier to solve. The slab is often thick enough to provide the required slope, and the small diameter of the pipes allows perforations in the beams of the supporting structure.

Plastic sewer pipes and fittings for them are a kind of constructor that is assembled without the use of special tools. Sealing of joints is provided by sealing rubber bands installed in grooves on the inner surface of the bells. It is convenient to first remove all rubber rings, assemble the system “dry”, making sure that the pipelines are correctly positioned and the slopes are correct, after which you can proceed to sealing all joints.

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