- Instrument for monitoring the state of the electrical circuit
- Probe of absence-presence of a phase in a 220 V, 50 Hz network
- Universal multimeter
- Specialized multimeter
- Current Clamp
- Cutting tool
- Stationery knife
- Nippers (side cutters)
- Cable cutter
- Classic pliers
- Screwdrivers, wrenches, hexagons
- The main types of screwdrivers required for electrical work
- Wrenches (open-end and ring-type)
- Adjustable wrench
- Socket wrench with socket set
- Torque wrench with socket set
- Hex key set
- Tool for pressing tips
- Soldering tool
- Autonomous light sources
- Additional power tool
The article discusses the minimum required tool required for electrical work in electrical networks with voltages up to 1000 V, including when working with home wiring.
The set of tools that you may need to repair or install an electrical network can vary greatly. But at the same time, there is a tool that you cannot do without. It is he, along with insulating tape, heat shrink tubing and small wires, that is constantly at hand for any electrician:
- Tester (multimeter and probe).
- Adjustable wrench or socket wrench set.
- Crosshead screwdriver.
- Straight Powerful Screwdriver.
- Straight thin screwdriver.
With the growth of professionalism, the amateur electrician may have an additional tool to simplify or speed up the work. Let’s consider a possible “arsenal” of an electrician in more detail.
Instrument for monitoring the state of the electrical circuit
The first thing an electrician should do is to protect himself from electric shock, so he not only turns off a circuit breaker or other device used to de-energize a part of the electrical network, but also controls the lack of electricity using a special device.
Probe of absence-presence of a phase in a 220 V, 50 Hz network
The minimum necessary, and at the same time very cheap tool is the so-called control, or probe. With its help, you can find the “phase”, which is necessary for the correct connection of a number of electrical appliances.
Most probes are made in the form of a screwdriver, but you should not use them for installation work, since they are made of fragile metal and plastic. During installation, the probe body often breaks, and the metal nose bends and crumbles.
The most informative device that allows not only to check the presence or absence of voltage, but also to diagnose a malfunction, check the correct installation, is a multimeter, which many call a “tseshka”, since this was the name of one of the first mass-sold devices of this type.
There are a large number of devices of this type on sale, but since they often fail (for example, when trying to measure the resistance on a non-de-energized network element), there is no need for beginners to purchase expensive, professional devices.
When choosing a device, you should pay attention to the quality of the probes sold in the kit. The probes should be soft, flexible, and bend easily anywhere. The second thing you should pay attention to is the quality of the case, ideally a special rubber cover should be put on it. The device should allow measuring AC and DC voltage and resistance, other options are rarely used.
Professional electricians may be interested in specialized multimeters.
So, the model shown in the photo allows you to accurately determine the inductance, capacitance and resistance of the measured circuit.
No less popular are current clamps, which allow you to measure the current flowing through the wires without direct contact with live parts, connect without breaking the circuit.
This device is universal, it allows you to measure current, and with the help of additional probes – DC and AC voltage, circuit resistance.
A very convenient device that allows you to check the insulation quality of an electrical circuit is a megohmmeter.
This device, using a built-in dynamo machine, can create a potential of 500, 1000 or 2500 V and, by measuring the leakage current, show the resistance of the circuit. It is indispensable when checking electrical cables and motors when there is a suspicion of problems with their insulation..
Device type Model type Voltage, U Current, I Resistance, R Price, rub. Probe Navigator NTP-E + – – 120 Multimeter UK-830LN + + + 400 Current Clamp F15 + + + 2000 Megohmmeter ES0202 / 2G – – + 7000
Working with electrical wiring involves the need to remove insulation, cut an electrical cable or wire to the measured length, therefore, you cannot do without a cutting tool during installation work.
The main tool for any electrician is a knife. You can use absolutely any sharp knife, but the most convenient are stationery knives with a replaceable blade.
It is convenient to use such a knife to strip wires and even cut thin copper wire..
Nippers (side cutters)
In order to cut thicker wires, and with some skill in stripping them, use various wire cutters or side cutters.
Thick cable or its individual cores are cut using cable cutters of various designs.
For an electrician, there is no more versatile tool than pliers. When buying them, you need to pay attention to the inscriptions on the plastic part of the handles. If there is an inscription 1000 V, then they can be used to perform electrical work, even without disconnecting the voltage.
Pliers make it easy to bite into thin cables or wires and can be used to strip wires. If the required open-end or spanner wrench is not available, the bolt connection can be unscrewed or pulled off with pliers. Pliers can be used when twisting wires to make a better connection. Pliers are the most versatile electrician’s tool, you shouldn’t save on its quality.
Special shaped pliers can be used to optimize cable handling – round nose pliers and thin nose pliers.
The rounded and refined shape of the jaws of this type of pliers makes it possible to simplify the installation of monolithic wires to the screw terminals (making a “ringlet”). The main thing in them is durable metal and high-quality plastic on the handles..
If you need to perform a large number of installations, a specialized tool designed for stripping wires of various diameters, called a stripper, can significantly speed up the work..
Stripping the wire from the wire with a stripper is done with one push of the handle, which significantly reduces the time required to strip the wires. With the help of built-in nippers, the wire is cut to measured lengths.
Tool name Tool type Price, rub. Knife clerical one hundred Nippers (side cutters) Intertool 115 mm (NT-0104) 150 Pliers Intertool 200mm (HT-0106) 200 Pliers Bison 2201-4-16 350 Cable cutter Stanley 24 84 4600 Stripper EMBLA 2200
Screwdrivers, wrenches, hexagons
Wiring of wires can be carried out with the help of several types of wire fixation: in int and spring-clamp.
If the first type, to one degree or another, has been known to everyone for a long time, then the spring-clamping type appeared relatively recently, and, due to the ease of installation and reliability of fixing the wires, is actively gaining popularity.
Installation of a wire in a spring-clamp terminal block
The principle of the spring-clamp terminal block is simple. Inside there is a conductive plate, on which the spring presses, with the help of a screwdriver the spring is pulled back and a wire is wound into the formed space between the spring and the conductor. After the screwdriver is removed, the spring securely fixes the wire.
The main types of screwdrivers required for electrical work
Based on the need to tighten or press various types of connecting elements, the electrician selects the optimal set of screwdrivers, wrenches or socket wrenches, hexagons.
Wrenches (open-end and ring-type)
The electrician’s kit should contain both cross-head (+) and straight screwdrivers (-) of various sizes. When choosing, it is advisable to give preference to those screwdrivers with a 1000 V mark on the handle. Good insulation is necessary, since quite often it is necessary to “tighten” various screw connections without relieving stress. The tip of such screwdrivers is covered with plastic to minimize the likelihood of accidental contact with other live parts of the electrical installation.
Since wrenches and open-end wrenches are completely made of metal, ensure that there is no life-threatening voltage before use..
In electrical installations, bolts and nuts of various diameters are used, because of this, you must have a solid supply of wrenches with you, so many electricians prefer to do with pliers and an adjustable wrench.
Socket wrench with socket set
In many seats, the nuts and bolt heads are “recessed”, and they can only be twisted using socket wrenches.
Torque wrench with socket set
Since copper and aluminum are fairly soft metals, the tightening force of bolts and nuts in electrical installations can be clearly normalized. For installation work, a torque wrench can be used to control the force applied to the threaded connection.
Hex key set
Many imported electrical installations and modern domestic ones are equipped with hexagon head bolts. To work with them, you will need a special set.
Tool name Tool type Price, rub. Screwdrivers, set Stanley FatMax VDE 1000V 6 pcs.
Screwdrivers (-): 2.5×50 mm, 3.5×75 mm, 5.5×150 mm
Screwdrivers (+): PH1x100 mm, PH2x125 mm
1300 Hexagons Set, Proline 9-piece (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 mm) 150 Open-end keys Set, 15 keys 6-22 mm: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 22 mm 650 Adjustable wrench Proline roller 150 mm (0-24 mm) 700 Socket wrenches Jonnesway 1/4 “4-13 mm sockets, 18 pieces 1400 Torque wrench. Ombra 1/2 “DR, reinforcement 42-210 Nm 1800
Tool for pressing tips
A number of electrical work includes the need to put on and fix special lugs on the cable or wire..
The lugs can be used to safely connect the copper and aluminum parts of conductive elements. They are needed for convenient and reliable connection of flexible cables or wires of large cross-section. Fixation of all types of these tips is carried out by means of crimping. For these works, presses of various capacities are used..
Press for crimping stranded wires with a cross section from 0.5 to 6 mm2
At home, it is not always possible to take or buy the required crimping tool. Straight ferrules for finely stranded wire can be crimped using heavy-duty pliers to squeeze the wire and ferrule to a flat surface. Heavy duty screw tips can be crimped using a rounded chisel and hammer. The blow with a chisel should fall exactly in the middle of the tip, but not cut it, but drive it inside, ensuring compression of the wires inside.
Tool name Tool type Price, rub. Crimping tool HS 30 for handpieces with a diameter of 0.5–6 mm 450 Crimping tool TMN-N for all types of handpieces with a diameter of 6-50 mm 1500
One of the most common types of connection of copper conductors is their soldering with tin solders. For these purposes, the wire is heated to the melting point of tin, and with the help of special fluxes, a tin coating is applied to it..
Soldering can be done using electric soldering irons of various capacities, in crucible furnaces, using blowing kerosene lamps and even special soldering stations. The choice of a tool for brazing is made taking into account the size of the parts to be brazed and the required accuracy. A 60W soldering iron is sufficient for most household needs.
Small soldering is carried out using soldering irons with a power of 25 W; soldering stations are used for particularly precise and complex work.
With the help of crucible furnaces and blowtorches, soldering of thick copper busbars and tinning (coating with a thin layer of tin) of workpieces is performed.
Tool name Tool type Price, rub. Electric soldering iron Work’s W30760 60W 180 Gas soldering iron Dremel Versaflame (F0132200JA) 2500 Soldering Station Lukey 702 3000
Autonomous light sources
Since most electrical installation and repair work is performed after a power outage, a flashlight powered by batteries or accumulators becomes one of the important auxiliary tools for an electrician..
During installation work, it is most convenient to use LED headlamps, since they allow you to effectively illuminate the place of work and do not take up the hands of the installer.
Additional power tool
Electrical work is often associated with the need to install and fix various boxes, sockets, switches. An electrician may need to make concealed wiring over existing flat walls, etc..
For these purposes, electric drills, hammer drills, grinders and wall chasers are used. The set of the necessary tools is formed depending on the task.
The composition of an electrician’s kit varies greatly depending on the complexity of the work. Buying all its main components, you should not save on quality, because there is a lot of work ahead. But the purchase of a specialized tool or various kits must be approached carefully and carefully, because their cost is high, and the need for use may be minimal. You should not immediately spend money on special shoes, overalls and dielectric gloves. Gloves can be easily punctured and electrocuted, any shoe will do, the main thing is that the sole is rubber and without nails. Clothes should also not contain a lot of metal. The main thing in the work of an electrician is caution and care, and this does not affect the cost and quantity of the tool..