- Estimate the scope of work
- Selection of heating devices
- Radiator connection diagram
- Pipe routing
- Radiator fittings and trim
- Distribution unit
Happy owners of housing in new buildings have to solve a lot of problems with repair and arrangement. One of them is replacing heating radiators with more advanced ones and adjusting their correct operation. This is what our review is devoted to, in it we will tell you about the correct choice and correct installation..
Estimate the scope of work
The main trend of the modern real estate market is flexibility in the provision of services. The buyer can be offered an absolutely empty box with a free layout or a fully equipped room with all the necessary communications. In relation to the heating system, this pattern is especially interesting..
Radiators are no longer purely technical. Today it is a status item that meets high requirements for the comfort of residents, and sometimes even effectively emphasizes the interior style. Naturally, the developer company cannot know all the whims of future customers, and therefore the simplest radiators are usually installed in the heating systems of new buildings, minimally affecting the rise in the cost of housing..
There are two special cases for radiators. The first and most common one is that they exist and are installed in accordance with the minimum norms for replenishing heat losses or simply for heating building structures. The second option is that there are no radiators at all, as well as a distribution pipeline. This happens quite rarely, but it happens: depending on the layout and class of glazing, there can be quite a lot of options for placing radiators, each of which has its own benefits. It is much better if this decision is made by the inhabitants of the apartment themselves in accordance with the heat consumption rate allocated for the living space..
Selection of heating devices
In municipal and centralized heating systems, the choice of radiators is limited by rather harsh operating conditions. The durability of devices is affected by the properties of the coolant, such as its purity and chemical composition and the operating mode of the hydraulic system: pressure surges, water shocks, the presence of an electric potential.
Of all the types of radiators, only bimetallic, steel and cast iron are suitable for work in such conditions. Aluminum radiators can be installed on the condition that the length of the heating system is limited to a few houses with a local boiler room, the equipment of which ensures high-quality preparation of the coolant.
A critical vulnerability of steel radiators is the presence of a large number of open welds. Cast iron radiators, although made by casting, are susceptible to fistula formation during the casting process. Bimetallic radiators are relieved of such shortcomings: their composite structure provides a threshold of destructive impact over 50 bar, which is considered an out-of-the-box indicator for most heating systems. However, the very fact that there is a steel embedded element in the radiator is not enough in practice, because the product must be made really soundly.
When choosing a radiator for installation in a new building, pay attention to Royal Thermo products. Bimetallic radiators are best suited, which are presented in two collections: Italian bimetallic design radiators PIANOFORTE, PIANOFORTE TOWER and BILINER and Russian-made radiators Revolution Bimetall, Vittoria and Indigo SUPER. These devices can be installed in any heating system with an aggressive heat carrier, including antifreeze with a pH of 8 to 9.5.
In the production of Royal Thermo radiators, all steel vertical and horizontal collectors are used made of grade 20 steel (increased resistance to corrosion). Additional strength is provided by welding with the WR-welding method with a double welding seam at 380 °. This guarantees 100% no contact of the coolant with aluminum.
Radiator connection diagram
In apartment buildings, heating piping and radiator connection schemes are highly unified, as a result of which almost all connections are made according to one of the common schemes:
- side point-to-point connection;
- bottom point-to-point connection;
- bottom connection using injector assembly.
An exception to the general rule is water heated towel rails and radiators, combined into a circuit to heat a room with a large area or long glazing length..
If there is no distribution of heating pipes, you can choose the connection scheme yourself.
In Royal Thermo radiators, to ensure tightness at the joints of the sections, Italian intersection nipples made of DD13 steel, which is characterized by increased corrosion resistance and operational reliability, are used, as well as gaskets made of Novaform SK, which guarantee 100% protection against leaks. The material was created in an Italian laboratory on the basis of special cotton with the addition of graphite and silicone. Intersectional gaskets of Royal Thermo radiators provide 100% protection against leaks during operation due to:
- high resistance to aggressive heat carriers, including antifreeze;
- stable tightness with temperature drops in the heating system.
Inter-section gasket and nipple for connecting sections
Quite often, when replacing radiators, it is necessary to change the configuration of the pipelines. This is mainly due to a change in the center distance: instead of “budget” radiators by 350 mm, full-fledged heating devices with an center distance of 500 mm are installed.
When replacing a section of a heating pipeline, a number of mandatory rules should be followed:
- No transition from one material to another. As a rule, it is performed with threaded fittings, which subsequently become vulnerable points of the entire system. The presence of threaded connections is allowed only at the points of connection of pipes to the radiator and only on condition that they remain accessible for maintenance.
- All vertical parts of the pipelines must be located strictly vertically, horizontal – with the correct slope. In systems with forced circulation, the horizontal supply and return pipes should have a slope in the direction of the water flow of the order of 2-5 mm for each meter of length.
- Pipe sections should be as straight as possible. Bending of pipes is possible only when bypassing obstacles and at points of connection for connecting heating devices.
- Heating pipes are not allowed to be hidden inside capital structures. Laying is performed either openly or in the cavity of a false wall or technical wells.
For apartment buildings, several pipe routing schemes are provided, which differ both in the visible configuration and in the order of connecting the radiators. The most common two-pipe wiring, in which the supply and return pipes are located parallel in the riser. Tie-in of connecting pipes can be performed:
- into one of the pipes, that is, according to the serial circuit diagram. The tie-in can be carried out either in the supply, or in the return, or alternately on different floors.
- into both pipes, that is, according to the scheme of parallel connected radiators.
If the wiring is one-pipe, the radiator is connected by both outputs to the same pipeline with the last shut-off valve installed in the gap. In any case, you should get recommendations on connection in the organization that manages the house, or in the design and construction bureau..
Radiator fittings and trim
A mandatory requirement when connecting a radiator to a rupture of one of the main pipes is the installation of a shorting insert (bypass). It is necessary in case of a malfunction of the radiator: if for some reason its shut-off valves are closed, the circulation in the riser must be maintained.
For the correct mode of operation with the inserter, one of two conditions must be observed:
- the insert must have a nominal bore less than that of the radiator connection pipes;
- a ball valve is cut into the insert, restricting the flow past the radiator.
It is not so easy to choose from the two options: in the first case, it will not be possible to squeeze the maximum heat transfer out of the radiator, in the second, you need to make sure that access to the tap on the insert remains.
As for connecting the radiators themselves, everything is a little more complicated here. There are three obligatory points:
- Both connection points must be equipped with shut-off valves so that there is a detachable connection between it and the radiator;
- One of the two shut-off valve devices should preferably be regulating or thermostatic. The regulator is usually installed on the supply pipe.
- A Mayevsky valve is installed in one of the upper side plugs of the radiator, but if both upper inlets are occupied, an air vent valve must be installed in front of the shut-off and control valves in the supply.
Additionally, we note that it is most convenient to install radiators provided that all components and fittings are purchased with the heaters in one set. Among the products of the manufacturer Royal Thermo we have already reviewed, you can find both pipes of the main varieties and additional accessories: shut-off and control valves, plugs, adapters, as well as four types of fasteners for radiators, ensuring their reliable and safe fixation, regardless of the installation system and material walls.
Royal Thermo adapters and plugs are cold forged from steel bar. Their tightness at the joints is ensured by special silicone gaskets, which are located in special recesses (grooves). A distinctive feature of Royal Thermo adapters is the optimal thread length, both external and internal.
If there is no piping in the apartment, the radiators are connected from the heating riser. For the proper organization of heating operation, the installation of a distribution unit is required – a collector with shut-off, protective and special fittings. The connection point to the heating riser is considered to be valves that close the outlets from the supply and return.
All devices that are installed in the distribution unit can be divided into mandatory and optional. Of the required nodes, you can select (in the order of installation from the supply riser):
- Coarse filter. Obviously, an impressive volume of coolant will flow through it, therefore, disk filters with automatic flushing will be the most convenient for use for this purpose;
- Reducer-compensator for protection against water hammer and pressure surges. Its installation is made by tapping into the feed through a tee.
- A leakage protection system is necessary to stop the flow of coolant in the event of a circuit depressurization. Unlike plumbing systems, the installation of protection in the heating circuit is carried out according to a more complex scheme: electric valves are mounted both for supply and return, another one is installed at the lower point of the system for emergency drainage of the coolant into the sewer. Air suction for draining is ensured by installing a tee with a return valve at the highest point of the system. Leakage sensors are located under each of the radiators.
- The distribution manifold (comb) is required to calibrate the flow rate regardless of the length of each branch and the number of radiators in it.
Royal Thermo anchor brackets for design radiators are made with a special geometric shape that perfectly follows the shape of the horizontal collector and provides an aesthetic appearance and injury safety during operation. Components are presented in three colors: silver, white and black.
1 – anchorage; 2 – corner bracket; 3 – wall bracket; 4 – floor adjustable bracket
More about pipes and fittings Royal Thermo.
And finally, watch the video from which you will learn about the differences between aluminum and bimetallic radiators..
We hope that, taking into account the described recommendations, you will be able to equip the heating system in the apartment in accordance with your own needs, providing households with comfortable heat combined with ease of use..