The use of solid fuel boilers as sources of thermal energy requires taking into account some differences in their installation and operation, in comparison with electric and gas counterparts. Let’s consider in this article the basic principles of installing these devices.
Even at the stage of purchasing heating devices, the question arises as to whether it is possible to install the boiler on our own.
There can be at least three reasons for making a decision in favor of installing a boiler with your own hands:
- Self-installation of a solid fuel boiler can be performed even by a person who has not previously encountered such work, but who has some technical skills..
- The device of a boiler room operating on wood, coal or pellets is allowed without the approval procedure in the supervisory authorities. It is enough to call specialists after the end of the work – for inspection and registration.
- The last reason (perhaps even the first) is a lot of money saving and confidence in the quality of the work performed.
Installation of solid fuel boilers has certain features inherent in this type of equipment. The entire boiler installation process is conventionally divided into several stages..
The first stage is the organization of the boiler room, ventilation and chimney
Solid fuel boilers cannot be placed in living rooms (living room, bedroom, kitchen); for this, a separate room is organized inside the house or outside in the form of an extension. The dimensions of the boiler room should ensure the location of all devices and access to them during maintenance, the smallest allowable area is 7 sq. m. There is also a place for storing fuel, which must be dry before laying. Walls made of combustible materials are protected with plaster 25–30 mm thick or 8 mm thick asbestos covered with an iron sheet. The height of the boiler room is taken such that after the installation of the heating unit from its top to the unprotected ceiling it is not less than 120 cm.
Normal combustion is ensured by a constant flow of air, which is accomplished by arranging ventilation openings. One of them (supply), measuring at least 10×10 cm, is placed at the bottom of the wall opposite the chimney. The upper ventilation duct is located under the ceiling – the higher the better.
The system for removing gaseous combustion products must provide optimal traction. Excessive force makes it difficult to regulate the combustion process, and insufficient draft reduces the boiler performance, increases the risk of carbon monoxide gases entering the room and freezing of the chimney. There are various designs of these systems – brick, coaxial, in any of them it is necessary to install a draft limiter or at least a manual damper.
The boiler is installed on a fireproof platform – concrete, brick. Installation on a wooden floor is only possible through a fire-retardant layer of a laid out row of bricks covered with a metal sheet or cement screed. The base is made 10–20 cm wider than the boiler from the sides and back, and in front of the firebox the protected area should be 40 cm or more.
Second stage – connection to the heating circuit
The heating system with a solid fuel boiler is equipped with an open-type expansion tank. The process of burning wood or coal is long-lasting, so even with a complete cessation of air supply (which is the only way of automatic regulation), the water temperature will drop only after a while.
In open tanks, the coolant expands freely, and with significant overheating it simply drains, as a result of which the pressure in the system itself does not increase. In the line suitable for the expander, it is not allowed to install any shut-off devices, and the pipe size must provide a high throughput, for example – for a 30 kW boiler, a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm or more is suitable.
In a closed heating system, solid fuel boilers specially designed for this can be used, which is displayed by the manufacturer. The device of such devices is designed for increased pressure, and the design provides for special schemes for absorbing heat surpluses – built-in heat exchangers or something like that. In a closed system, a safety valve is installed, located on the outlet manifold and activated at a pressure of no more than 0.15 MPa.
The first meter of both the outlet of the hot coolant and the return line is made of steel pipes. The entire heating system is designed with the minimum possible number of any turns and bends. To ensure the natural circulation of water in the event of power failures, the pump cuts into a parallel line. Another method of protection is the implementation of a second (spare) circuit that removes heat in case of emergency, for example, it can be a storage tank for hot water supply.
The final stage is the launch of the boiler – the first heating, which includes the operations of setting up various units of the apparatus.
In the next article, Our site will tell you how to install a solid fuel boiler on your own. It will be devoted to practical points, and you will also find tips on what to pay attention to during installation, as well as how to set up and check the boiler yourself at the first start..