- 1. Wiring in strict compliance with regulations
- 2. Wiring diagram for walls and ceiling
- 3. Localization of conductors and forks
- 4. Protective devices
- 5. Installation of installation products and fittings
In terms of electrical installation, wooden buildings are the most complex objects. We have prepared for you a set of rules for wiring in a wooden house, where questions regarding the choice of materials and cable laying systems, as well as the installation of installation products, are discussed in detail..
1. Wiring in strict compliance with regulations
The organization of the electrical network in a wooden house is second in complexity only to buildings on a fixed polystyrene foam formwork. Laying on combustible bases is allowed only in an open way or with one hundred percent localization of the conductor inside the protective sheath.
This requirement is not so strict for frame internal partitions with a non-combustible filler. In the most correct version, the passage of the cable through the frame racks is accompanied by a casing of the latter; in practice, most often the conductor is dressed completely in a corrugation or a metal hose, ensuring interchangeability.
Open-pit laying is also a good solution. A number of fittings and installation techniques are provided to make open wiring aesthetically pleasing and even add a touch of color to the interior. In addition to plastic cable ducts, it is possible to lay a PV-1 wire with winding on ceramic insulators and use case-based installation fittings of a non-flush type. In cases of hidden laying, non-combustible cable brands are used: VVGng or KGng.
Due to the complexity of the installation, cable routing along the walls should be kept to a minimum. But for this you need to thoroughly think over the layout of the cable lines.
2. Wiring diagram for walls and ceiling
In the most acceptable version of the electrical network around the house, each electrical point is connected in one straight line with a frame floor, a ceiling or a rough ceiling, covered with a suspended or stretch covering. Through the technological cavity, hidden from view, all the main wiring is performed, although more often the lines simply stretch one by one to the group shield. Naturally, the bulk of the sockets and switches should be placed on the inner walls, and on the enclosing ones only if necessary..
A smart solution would be to run the lighting wiring from the switches to the ceiling, and lead the wires for connecting the sockets down to the floor. Due to their low load, the lines of the lighting network can be organized by means of junction boxes that are inaccessible for maintenance. It is enough to bring the power line from the circuit breaker to such a box, and from it, lower the switching wire to the key and along the power line to each lighting group.
Lines of sockets and general-purpose groups can be combined into so-called garlands. It is important that no more than two conductors are fixed to each terminal block of the sockets. Otherwise, each outlet and group are connected in hidden junction boxes, and lines with a particularly high load from household appliances and heaters follow to the group panel without breaking.
It is recommended to cover the loops gathering on the wall near the panel board with a decorative casing. When laying the cables in groups, it is also recommended to separate the base with a non-combustible backing, for example, by cutting drywall.
3. Localization of conductors and forks
For some reason, surface wiring may not be acceptable. In this case, the task becomes many times more complicated, despite the fact that the part of the wiring laid along the walls is only 15-20% of the total length of the lines.
The possibility of hidden laying should be laid even at the stage of preliminary assembly of the log house. According to the plan of internal power supply, technological channels for the cable are made in the walls as they are laid. For this, either electric blowers or core drills are used. Approximate channel width – 30-50 mm.
Outlet holes are drilled in the section of the frame system of the floor or floors. Installation of electrical fittings is possible by the recessed method; for this, the channel is found with a probe and a hole is drilled with a 60–80 mm core drill in the array of timber. The installation boxes for sockets and switches must be steel, preferably with a fiberglass insert.
The pipe sections laid inside the walls should be localized from the environment. A smooth pipe is used for this: metal with a wall thickness of 2.5 mm or steel – from 1.2 mm. These values are approximate, a more accurate calculation requires taking into account the load and voltage on the line, as well as the type and number of conductors inside the sheath.
For branching power lines hidden in the cavities of frame structures, it is recommended to use metal boxes. For indoor installation, protection from wood dust with a degree of at least 3 is desirable, moisture protection is not taken into account. The entry of the sheaths of cable lines should be flared, or equipped with a limiting ring or a nut that does not allow undocking.
4. Protective devices
Electrical installation in a wooden house can be complicated by the peculiarities of the arrangement of group and distribution boards. The difference is observed both in the method of housing installation and in the selection of protective equipment.
Installation of the housing of electrical panels must be carried out on a non-combustible base. Therefore, it is recommended to upholster the surface with tin under the central shields with ASU, and when installing group shields, use textolite or fiberglass linings.
It is convenient to connect group shields to the floor and floor by means of a cable channel, in which usually 3-4 lines are laid for each room. It is not recommended to place the shields close to the ceiling or floor.
The circuit breakers are selected according to the permissible continuous current for the cable on the outgoing line, the choice is always made towards a lower rating. Equipment that does not have internal protection against short circuits, as well as lines with a fixed maximum load (ovens, air conditioners) are connected through a circuit breaker with a rating in terms of power consumption and a low response delay in case of overload (characteristics B and A).
In wooden houses, it is customary to lay wiring according to a three-wire circuit, where the protective conductor is not connected to the zero. For this reason, the installation of differential protection against electric shock can lead to false positives. But a fire-fighting type diffautomatic device that monitors insulation leaks will be very useful.
5. Installation of installation products and fittings
At the final stage, the installation of fine electrics is carried out. This is most easily done using non-flush fittings. It is easy enough to screw it to a wooden wall with a pair of self-tapping screws, having previously inserted it into the case and connected the wires.
Much more time and effort is spent on installing hidden (recessed) fittings. For a tight fit of the frames, a flat surface is required, so the logs are first grinded with a plane. Next, a hole is made to connect the surface to the hidden channel. It is used as a centering tool when drilling the installation niche with a core cutter.
It is characteristic that the installation boxes can be embedded in the same way as in stone walls – by planting on alabaster. Otherwise, the area must be localized and connected to the cable duct with a non-flammable rigid sleeve.