## Recommendation points

- Heating system calculation
- Radiator calculation
- Pipe selection
- System installation
- Additional devices

Of all the currently known options for heating your own home, the most common type is an individual water heating system. Oil radiators, fireplaces, stoves, fan heaters and infrared heaters are often used as auxiliary devices.

The heating system of a private house consists of heating devices, piping and locking and regulating mechanisms, all of which serve to transport heat from the heat generator to the end points of space heating. It is important to understand that the reliability, durability and efficiency of an individual heating system depends on its correct calculation and installation, as well as on the quality of the materials used in this system and its competent operation..

## Heating system calculation

Let us consider in detail a simplified version of the calculation of a water heating system, in which we will use standard and generally available components. The figure shows schematically an individual heating system of a private house based on a single-circuit boiler. First of all, we need to decide on its power, since it is the basis for all calculations in the future. Let’s perform this procedure according to the scheme described below..

The total area of the room: S = 78.5; total volume: V = 220

We have a one-storey house with three rooms, an entrance hall, a corridor, a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. Knowing the area of each individual room and the height of the rooms, it is necessary to make elementary calculations in order to calculate the volume of the entire house:

- room 1:
10 m ^{2}2.8 m = 28 m^{3}- room 2:
10 m ^{2}2.8 m = 28 m^{3}- room 3:
20 m ^{2}2.8 m = 56 m^{3}- hallway:
8 m ^{2}2.8 m = 22.4 m^{3}- the corridor :
8 m ^{2}2.8 m = 22.4 m^{3}- kitchen:
15.5 m ^{2}2.8 m = 43.4 m^{3}- bathroom:
4 m ^{2}2.8 m = 11.2 m^{3}- restroom:
3m ^{2}2.8 m = 8.4 m^{3}Thus, we calculated the volume of all individual rooms, thanks to which we can now calculate the total volume of the house, it is equal to 220 cubic meters. Note that we also calculated the volume of the corridor, but in fact there is not a single heating device indicated there, what is it for? The fact is that the corridor will also be heated, but in a passive way, due to heat circulation, so we need to add it to the general heating list in order for the calculation to be correct and give the desired result.

We will carry out the next stage of calculating the boiler power based on the required amount of energy per cubic meter. Each region has its own indicator – in our calculations we use 40 W per cubic meter, based on the recommendations for the regions of the European part of the CIS:

40 W 220 m ^{3}= 8800 WThe resulting figure must be raised to a factor of 1.2, which will give us 20% of the power reserve so that the boiler does not constantly work at full power. Thus, we understand that we need a boiler that is capable of generating 10.6 kW (standard single-circuit boilers are produced with a capacity of 12-14 kW).

## Radiator calculation

In our case, we will use standard aluminum radiators with a height of 0.6 m. The power of each fin of such a radiator at a temperature of 70 ° C is 150 W. Next, we will calculate the power of each radiator and the number of conditional edges:

- room 1:
28 m We round up to 1500 and get 10 conditional edges, but since we have two radiators, both under the windows, we take one with 6 edges, the second with 4.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 1344 W.- room 2:
28 m Round up to 1500 and get one radiator with 10 ribs.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 1344 W.- room 3:
56 m We round up to 2700 and get three radiators: 1st and 2nd with 5 ribs, 3rd (side) – 8 ribs.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 2688 W- hallway:
22.4 m Round up to 1200 and get two radiators with 4 fins.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 1075.2 W.- bathroom:
11.2 m . Here the temperature should be slightly higher, it turns out 1 radiator with 4 ribs.^{3}45 W 1.2 = 600 W- restroom:
8.4 m Round up to 450 and get three edges.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 403.2 W.- kitchen:
43.4 m Round up to 2100 and get two radiators with 7 edges.^{3}40 W 1.2 = 2083.2 W.As a final result, we see that we need 12 radiators with a total capacity:

900 + 600 + 1500 + 750 + 750 + 1200 + 600 + 600 + 600 + 450 + 1050 + 1050 = 10.05 kW Based on the latest calculations, it is clear that our individual heating system will cope with the load assigned to it without any problems..

## Pipe selection

A pipeline for an individual heating system is a medium for transporting heat energy (in particular, heated water). On the domestic market, pipes for the installation of systems are presented in three main types:

- metal
- copper
- plastic
Metal pipes have a number of significant disadvantages. In addition to being heavy and requiring special installation equipment and experience, they are also susceptible to corrosion and can build up static electricity. A good option is copper pipes, they can withstand temperatures up to 200 degrees and a pressure of about 200 atmospheres. But copper pipes differ in the specifics of installation (special equipment, silver solder and extensive experience are required), in addition, their cost is very high. The most popular option is plastic pipes. And that’s why:

- they have an aluminum base, which is covered with plastic on both sides, due to which they have great strength;
- they absolutely do not allow oxygen to pass through, which makes it possible to reduce the process of corrosion formation on the inner walls to zero;
- thanks to aluminum reinforcement, they have a very low coefficient of linear expansion;
- plastic pipes are antistatic;
- have low hydraulic resistance;
- no special skills required for installation.
## System installation

First of all, we need to install sectional radiators. They must be placed strictly under the windows, warm air from the radiator will prevent cold air from entering from the window. For the installation of sectional radiators, you do not need any special equipment, only a perforator and a building level. It is necessary to strictly adhere to one rule: all radiators in the house must be mounted strictly at the same horizontal level, the general circulation of water in the system depends on this parameter. Also observe the vertical arrangement of the radiator fins.

After installing the radiators, you can start laying pipes. It is necessary to measure in advance the total length of the pipes, as well as count the number of various fittings (elbows, tees, plugs, etc.). To install plastic pipes, you need only three tools – a tape measure, pipe scissors and a soldering iron. Most of these pipes and fittings have laser perforation in the form of notches and guide lines, which makes it possible to carry out the installation on site correctly and evenly. When working with a soldering iron, you should adhere to only one rule – after you have melted and docked the ends of the products, in no case do not scroll them if it was not possible to solder exactly the first time, otherwise it may leak in this place. Better practice beforehand on the pieces that go to waste.

## Additional devices

According to statistics, a system with passive water circulation will function properly if the area of the room does not exceed 100-120 m

^{2}. Otherwise, special pumps must be used. Of course, there are a number of boilers in which pumping systems are already built and they themselves provide water circulation through the pipes, if you do not have one, then you should purchase it separately.On the domestic market, their choice is very large, moreover, they meet all the necessary requirements – they consume little electricity, are silent and small in size. Circulation pumps are mounted at the ends of the heating branches. Thus, the pump will last longer as it will not be directly exposed to hot water..

An example of a one-pipe heating system with forced circulation: 1 – boiler; 2 – security group; 3 – heating radiators; 4 – needle valve; 5 – expansion tank; 6 – drain; 7 – water supply; 8 – coarse water filter; 9 – circulation pump; 10 – ball valves

From all of the above, it becomes clear that two or three people can easily cope with the installation of such a system; this does not require special professional skills, the main thing is to be able to use elementary construction tools. In our article, we examined an individual heating system assembled using standard components, their price and availability will allow almost everyone to mount a similar heating system at home..