Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

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The wide selection of water filters would seem to confuse anyone. How do you make sense of this abundance of water purification devices? In this article, we will consider all the main types of filter elements, household and industrial, by classification and purpose, we will give advice on the selection and operation.

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

Today’s market is oversaturated with water filters of various power, which are not only able to purify water from all impurities, but also soften it, saturate it with mineral salts, etc. They can be conditionally divided into two large groups:

  1. Filters for pretreatment of water.
  2. Filters for purification of tap water.

Filters for pretreatment of water

Such filters are used to purify self-produced water from wells and wells. The main pollution, unusual for tap water, for these sources is an increased content of hydrogen sulfide, iron, various salts and a large amount of suspended matter..

A striking example of such filters are installations for water purification from salts ECOSOFT FU 0835 Cab and hydrogen sulfide ECOSOFT FPС 1054 Centaur.

Pollution type Filter type Maximum Filtered Contamination Performance Price, rub.
Hydrogen sulfide, iron ECOSOFT FPС 1054 Centaur Iron not more than 3 mg / liter
Hydrogen sulfide – 5 points.
0.6 m / hour, within 2 years 35000
Rigidity ECOSOFT FU 0835 Cab potassium, magnesium, manganese salts not more than 15 mg / liter
iron – 0.3 mg / liter
1m3/ hour, within 2 years 40,000

These devices are capable of self-regeneration, and therefore, when cleaning 15–20 thousand liters of water per day, their resource will be enough for two years of operation. After this period, it is required to replace the granules of the filter element.

Due to the high cost and size, despite the large resource and productivity, these filters are not used in everyday life.

Filters for purification of tap water

Depending on the size and performance, all of the filter elements discussed below can be used for both industrial and domestic purposes. This type of filters is used to prepare the water supplied through centralized water pipelines (conditionally drinking) for use. Most of them are available in the form of a replaceable cartridge, which allows you to quickly replace an element that has been used up..

Filters assembled on their basis can be used both for purification of all supplied water (main filters), and for obtaining drinking water from one source or tap. In this case, the filter elements used differ only in size and shape.

Filters for the post-treatment of drinking water can be divided into several main groups:

  1. Mesh filters for coarse mechanical water purification.
  2. Fine mechanical filters.
  3. Activated carbon filters.
  4. Multi-component filter elements.
  5. Reverse osmosis membranes.
  6. Mineralizers and activators.
  7. Electrical disinfection filters.
  8. Anti-scale filter elements.

Mesh filters for coarse mechanical water purification

To remove large solids from the supplied tap water, mesh filters of various designs and degrees of purification are used. The mesh in these filters must be cleaned regularly, after which the filter can continue to work..

The most optimal solution for water purification from large impurities is the HONEYWELL FF06–1 / 2AA filter, which is capable of retaining suspended matter up to 100 microns in size with the installed mesh filter. A feature of this filter is a built-in flushing system that allows you to remove suspended solids collected on the grid without disassembling the filter.

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

Fine mechanical filters

This type of filter is designed to remove suspended solids supplied with water, such as sand, clay, rust. Depending on the material used (ultra-fine polypropylene filament or fibers), this filter can remove solids supplied with water in the size of 1, 5, 10, 15 or 50 microns. Such cleaning improves the color of water and protects expensive household appliances from damage..

Its resource depends on the amount of pollutants in the water, it must be replaced every 5000 liters of filtered water or once every 3 months..

This type of filter includes FS-1 with a built-in self-cleaning function.

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

The activated silver coating creates an additional effect of disinfecting drinking water. The service life of this filter with its timely cleaning is not limited. Therefore, despite the high cost, about 10-12 thousand rubles, it fully pays for itself after several years of operation..

Activated carbon filter elements

Activated carbon has excellent sorbing properties, due to which chlorine and organic impurities are retained, but at the same time it does not cope well with the removal of heavy metals and bacteria from water. The quality of cleaning in such a filter depends on the time the water passes through the filter: the larger the filter size or the lower the speed of water movement, the better the filtration quality. For water purification, cartridges filled with granular activated carbon can be used. Such filters have the largest absorption area, but do not cope well with mechanical filtration..

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

Pressed activated carbon cartridges absorb impurities from water a little worse, but thanks to carbon fibers they effectively retain mechanical inclusions.

Charcoal filters improve water color and taste. The carbon filter should be replaced when the taste of the purified water deteriorates, but at least as often as indicated in the instructions (usually, after filtration, 4–5 thousand liters of water).

Multi-component filter elements

To improve the quality of filtration, various additives are introduced into the composition of carbon filters, with the help of which the cartridge retains heavy metals and disinfects the water.

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

The filler in such filters can be either granular or compressed. To save space, a number of cartridges of this group are produced in one housing with a mechanical filter. The most versatile is a filter that combines mechanical cleaning, activated carbon and KDF backfill (elements that reduce the content of iron and heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead). KDF and similar additives can remove hydrogen sulfide and pesticides, prevent the development of bacteria and viruses in the treated water.

Filters of this category effectively cope with water purification from harmful impurities, remove bad odor and improve the taste of water.

Reverse osmosis membranes

Systems based on reverse osmosis membranes have the highest degree of purification of drinking water. Their work is based on the ability of the membrane wall to freely pass water molecules, but at the same time remain impermeable to larger molecules of impurities. This effect guarantees perfect purity of the outlet water..

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

Reverse osmosis membranes can be regenerated (cleaned from contamination), but they should be replaced at least once every two years, since their properties deteriorate under the influence of active chlorine contained in the water.

Mineralizers and activators

Since after purifying water using reverse osmosis, all salts are removed from it and the molecular structure is disturbed, it is recommended to restore the salt balance before using it in food. For this purpose, special water-mineralizing cartridges are used, and to improve the absorption of the purified water by the body, its activation is carried out..

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

The resource of these cartridges does not exceed 2000 liters.

Electrical disinfection elements

Removal of pathogenic flora from the supplied water can be carried out using electric ozonizing and ultraviolet emitting electric units. Unlike chemical ones, these blocks are completely harmless to humans, moreover, they are very economical and easy to maintain..

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

The service life of these filter elements is not limited, but a deterioration in the quality of water treatment is possible due to the deposition of plaque on the emitter, therefore they are recommended to be changed after working out for 3-5 years.

Filter cartridge type Performance Resource Fur. cleaning Chlorine Organic Heavy metals Bacteria and Viruses Price, rub.
Mechanical cleaning 1.5-2.0 l / min 4000-5000 liters + 50
Coal, pressed 1.5-2.0 l / min 4000-5000 liters + + + 150
Coal, granular 1.5-2.0 l / min 4000-5000 liters + + 150
Multicomponent 1.5-2.0 l / min 4000-5000 liters + + + + 600
Membranes 150-400 l / day 2-3 years of work + + + + + 1500
Mineralizers 150-400 l / day 2000 liters 250
Bactericidal, ultraviolet 1500-3000 l / day 2-4 years of work + 1200

Anti-scale filter element

To prepare tap water for use in boilers, washing machines and dishwashers, special “salt” filters are used to soften water hardness.

Water filters: classification, purpose, tips for choosing

After filling it with granules, you can not be afraid of the state of the electric water heating elements. After cleaning more than 30,000 liters of water, it is necessary to add granules to the purifier. The price of such a filler is about 600 rubles per package..

When purchasing a filter for an apartment or office, it is enough to know the “hardness” of the water (soft, hard, medium hardness). Based on this, the required multicomponent filter element and other components of the water treatment system are selected..

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