Why is this phenomenon called “efflorescence”? Because the white spots on the façade are essentially salt, dried brine. Brick – the material is quite porous, it absorbs moisture, and it, in turn, may contain salt, which is displayed on the surface of the masonry, dries up and forms an unattractive white coating, noticeable stains.
Not only is efflorescence is ugly, it is also dangerous. Over time, scales will appear on the spots, the brick will begin to collapse – this process is called “salt corrosion”. The process of brick destruction occurs from the inside, it is aggravated by temperature changes, part of the masonry will begin to fall off over time. Therefore, efflorescence should be dealt with, and even better – try to prevent the appearance of white bloom on a brick facade.
There may be several reasons for the appearance of efflorescence:
- The presence of salt in the raw material for bricks, alumina. Moisture penetrates the brick, salts dissolve and are removed to the outside in the form of a white coating.
- The presence of salt in the masonry solution. Salt can be in water for solution, in river sand.
- The presence of salt in the soil on which the house is built. True, in this case, it can only penetrate the masonry if the principles of waterproofing the foundation, the layer between the wall and the base, have been violated. So we are talking more about problems with construction technology, and not with soil..
- The presence of salt in additives – plasticizers, accelerators or retarders of concrete mortar, and so on.
- Precipitation. Rainwater is not terrible if it is clean, but if there is a chemical plant or enterprise with harmful emissions into the atmosphere nearby? You never know what rain can bring and leave marks on your brick wall. It is not recommended to make brickwork in wet and rainy weather, remember this!
In order not to start actively fighting efflorescence a year after the end of construction, you can try to prevent their appearance:
- Choose quality bricks from a trusted manufacturer with a good reputation. We admit that by sight you will not determine if there is an excess of salt in the brick. But it is still worth reading reviews about the brick of this plant.
- Use a thick enough mortar for masonry, only fresh, not diluted with water.
- Add clean water and sufficiently coarse washed sand to the solution.
- Refuse various additives to the masonry solution, including anti-frost.
- Lay laying only in dry weather, preferably in summer.
- Cover unfinished walls in the rain and try to drive them out under the roof as soon as possible so that the brick absorbs as little moisture as possible.
- Do not stain the facade with mortar. If this happens, remove the solution with a dry brush immediately. If it is dry, you will have to remove it wet, but you still need to do it.
- When the masonry is completed and dry, a water-repellent, water-repellent compound should be applied to the facade..
- Provide an efficient drainage system and awnings so that the facades get wet as little as possible during rains.
If the measures taken did not help and efflorescence still appeared on the facade, you will have to take measures:
- Buy a special composition against white spots on brickwork. The choice of such mixtures is quite large in the construction market, they are often called simply “antisalt”. Five liters of such a composition can cost about 500 rubles.
- With this composition, we clean the wall from white spots. Usually, wide paint brushes are used, you can take a roller, a brush. The main thing is to qualitatively remove all stains, treat the surface well.
- On containers with a composition against efflorescence, manufacturers must write how long it should remain on the masonry. After the specified time has passed, we wash off the composition, the easiest way to do this is using a watering hose or a household mini-sink.
- The wall treated and washed with water should dry out, after which, in order to prevent the appearance of new white spots, a special water-repellent composition is applied to it, most often on a silicone or acrylic base.
As homemade solutions to combat efflorescence, you can use a bottle of ammonia diluted in a bucket of water, as well as a 5% hydrochloric acid solution. Work, of course, should be in protective clothing, it is advisable to use glasses against getting the solution, purchased or homemade, into the eyes.