- The design of the Russian (oven) oven
- Furnace body
- Clay-sand mortar
- Furnace tools
- Furnace-drying oven
The Russian stove (oven) is a unique construction of our ancestors, which not only warms, but also feeds, heals, and also ventilates the room. With the multivariance in the details of the form, its main components remain unchanged. In the article we will consider the design of the Russian stove and its ordinal laying..
Even before the introduction of the modern measurement system, the traditional dimensions of the Russian stove were calculated in arshins. 1 arshin is approximately equal to 71 cm.The oven had 2 arshins in width, 3 arshins in length, and the height of the main body of the oven from the base of the guardhouse to the bed was 2.5 arshins.
The design of the Russian (oven) oven
There are three main components in the oven:
Our ancestors used rubble stone or overheated brick for the foundation. Without departing far from the traditions of the past, we will consider the option of a concrete foundation for the furnace body.
The depth of the foundation for the furnace depends on the properties of the soil, whether the building is heated during a cold period of time, what is the level of groundwater. In the case of non-constant heating of the building, the depth of the base of the foundation is provided below the depth of soil freezing in the coldest time.
1 – the bottom of the foundation; 2 – rubble masonry; 3 – bookmark depth; 4 – waterproofing; 5 – floor level; 6 – furnace array
Rubble concrete consists of concrete mix and rubble stone. For the foundation, it is enough to use concrete mix M200. Concrete mix M200 is obtained with the following composition:
- cement M400 – 1 part;
- sand – 2 parts;
- gravel or crushed stone of fraction less than 3 cm – 4 parts.
For the manufacture of concrete, sand is taken with a minimum amount of organic, clayey, dusty, mica impurities, which significantly reduce the strength and frost-resistant properties of concrete.
Water is poured into the dry mixture of cement, sand and gravel gradually, with constant stirring of the ingredients until the required fluidity of the mixture is achieved. In this case, the volume of water is approximately equal to the volume of cement taken.
The foundation for the furnace can be constructed both with the help of formwork and without formwork, with dense non-crumbling soils and the depth of the base of the foundation less than 1.25 m. In the case of a non-formwork device, the size of the pit must correspond to the size of the foundation. It is necessary to lay a layer of compacted crushed stone with a thickness of at least 10 cm under the base of the foundation.
Rubble concrete masonry is the process of embedding rubble stone into a layer of a laid concrete layer 20 cm high. The rubble stone should be less than 30 cm, it is immersed in a concrete layer to a depth of more than 1/2 of its height. The gap between the stones being laid, as well as between the stone and the formwork is 4–6 cm. When the rubble layer is completely laid, the next layer of concrete is laid and the process of embedding the stone is repeated.
To achieve the full quality of concrete work, breaks in the process of laying the foundation are allowed only when the gaps between the stones are filled with concrete of the last layer. In dry, windy or hot weather, with interruptions in work for more than a day, to prevent rapid drying, the concrete surface is covered with some kind of material (you can tarnish) and moistened with water 3-4 times a day. Before resuming work, the surface of the last layer is cleaned of dirt and moistened with water.
Rubble stone can be replaced with fragments of red brick or pieces of concrete, while the aggregate of the concrete mix can be brick rubble. Stones, fragments of bricks must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt before being immersed in the concrete mixture. In dry and hot weather, in the case of using broken bricks, the fragments are soaked in water before laying.
The timing of concrete gaining strength depends on its temperature. At a temperature of 10 ° C, in the first day, it will gain about 10% of its full strength, in 7 days about 60%, and in 28 days – 85%. With an increase in the temperature of concrete, the terms of its full strength gain are reduced. It is necessary to start masonry on the surface of the foundation no earlier than after 14-28 days.
In a Russian hut, a stove was installed in a corner not far from the door. About 20 cm receded from one wall, and about 1 meter from the other, where the entrance door was. In this place, a closet was often equipped, where food and kitchen utensils were stored..
On the surface of the foundation, which has gained strength, 2 layers of waterproofing material (roofing felt, roofing felt, etc.) are laid. Next, the base of the furnace (guardianship) is laid out. In the classic Russian stove of the past, a wooden bar or log was used for this..
1 – baking; 2 – subset; 3 – six; 4 – under; 5 – strangler; 6 – overlap; 7 – half door; 8 – gate valve; 9 – chimney pipe
The base served for storing kitchen utensils, and stove implements (grabs, pokers, frying pans) were placed in the oven. Now this part of the furnace is laid out mainly of brick (ordinary clay). And you need to use full-bodied. The brick is front and ordinary. The front one is used for cladding, the ordinary one is used for the internal masonry of the furnace. For surfaces in contact with open fire, it is necessary to use refractory bricks (chamotte), which can withstand temperatures of more than 1300 ° C.
The amount of sand in the clay-sand mortar is determined depending on the fat content of the clay (oily – 2–4% sand, medium – 15% sand, lean – 30% sand). To achieve the highest quality masonry, sand must be taken sifted through a sieve with 3×3 mm cells.
The proportions of clay-sand mortar:
- Oily clay: 1 bucket of clay, 2.5 buckets of sand.
- Medium clay: 1 bucket of clay, 1.5 buckets of sand.
- Skinny clay: 1 bucket of clay, 1 bucket of sand.
To prepare the solution, several buckets of crushed clay are placed in a container and filled with water for 24 hours. Then add the required amount of sand in portions to the soaked clay, constantly stirring until a homogeneous consistency.
1 – square; 2 – pickaxe; 3 – oven hammer; 4 – level; 5 – ruler; 6 – trowel; 7 – plumb line
The construction of the guardhouse itself is made of ordinary clay bricks on a cement-sand mortar based on M400 cement, in a proportion: 1 part of cement and 3 parts of sand. The necessary mobility of the mortar can be checked by placing part of it on the bayonet of the shovel at an angle of 45 °. In this position, the finished solution should not drain. Before starting laying, the bricks are soaked for better adhesion to the mortar.
For the entire structure of the furnace, approximately 1,500 to 2,500 pieces of bricks, including refractory bricks, will be required, depending on the height of the room and the roof structure. The consumption of clay and sand in the mortar is about 80 buckets. Furnace accessories will require: views, latches and half doors.
The view is installed between the highlighter and the pipe to block the passage of hot gases from the furnace to retain heat in the furnace. At the place of installation of the view, an opening is made for laying a half-door, which can also be used as natural ventilation of the room.
Kiln dampers are needed to cover the mouth, regulating the heat process in the kiln.
The valve is installed above the view to regulate the draft in the pipe and prevent the cold air from the pipe from falling down.
The first row is laid on the foundation waterproofing. In the corners, 3/4 bricks and beveled bricks are used for better dressing of subsequent rows of masonry. The entire structure of the guardianship is laid out on a cement-sand mortar.
The second row is the beginning of laying the walls of the guardianship.
Third row. The construction of the walls of the guardhouse with the use of 3/4 bricks continues.
The fourth row is laid out according to the given order and involves the use of beveled bricks to support (heel) the arch..
The fifth row is laid using 3/4 bricks in the corners of the kiln, beveled bricks to support the arch. The arch is also laid out here. A wooden template is pre-made, which is inserted into the opening.
The sixth row is laid out according to the given order. A wooden vault template is made in advance, which is inserted into the inside of the masonry. In the process of making a template it is necessary to provide for its easy disassembly at the end of the laying of the vault of guardianship. For a snug fit of the template to the walls of the masonry, 1–2 spacers are driven in at the bottom.
The seventh row involves laying the arch and the next row. The arch begins to lay out on both sides, gradually moving towards the middle. The last brick is called a castle brick, its role is to create compressive stress at the base of the arch, which will ensure the strength of such a structure. In this regard, the last brick is inserted into the gap less than 1/4 of the brick using a mallet. The bricks in the vault are stacked as tightly as possible to each other, so the seams at the bottom are made as small as possible, and the upper gaps are made of the same size, into which, if possible, fragments of brick can be embedded.
The eighth row provides for one layer of masonry walls of the guardianship in accordance with the given order with the arrangement of the site of the cold stove.
Ninth row. In addition to one row of walls, the walls of the stove are also laid out.
The tenth row completes the laying of the guardianship walls. For better insulation of the cold part of the furnace from its hot part, the inner space is covered with dry calcined sand to the upper border of this row.
The eleventh row overlaps the guardians completely with the use of additional and beveled bricks. From this row, the cement-sand mortar is replaced by a clay-sand mortar.
The twelfth row begins the device of the hot part of the furnace (under, six). Therefore, all surfaces in contact with fire must be made of fire-resistant bricks, the dimensions of which coincide with the dimensions of an ordinary one. The surface of the hearth must be level. To do this, it is sanded with fine sand and bricks, removing all the unevenness of the masonry. In addition, for the convenience of removing coal from the hearth, its surface is made with a slope towards the mouth.
The thirteenth row lays the cooking chamber and the six. A hardened metal mouth arc is also installed here. A hardened steel wire attached to it is laid in the masonry.
The fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth rows line up the walls of the furnace and the six.
The seventeenth row is the final one in the masonry of the mouth with an arched vault. At this stage, sloped brick heels are laid out, which are the supports for the brick vault of the cooking chamber, and the formwork of the arch of the cooking chamber is inserted.
The eighteenth row is laid out according to the principle of the vault, which is described in the seventh row using clay-sand mortar and refractory bricks.
The nineteenth row involves building up the walls and arch of the six.
The twentieth row continues to build up the walls, and also partially overlaps the hole above the sixth, leaving a channel for overtube. The inner space above the cooking chamber is filled with dry calcined sand.
The twenty-first row covers the crucible. The overtube channel is somewhat reduced for the device of the protrusion, which prevents the penetration of sparks from the cooking space into the pipe. The laying of the samovar channel begins here..
The twenty-second row completes the overlap device. A strangler is installed in the samovar channel. Steel wire on its sleeve is embedded in the masonry.
The twenty-third row involves laying the overtube channel and samovar. The strap is also attached here using hardened steel wire. In this row, a small opening is made to remove soot from the channel ledge, which is covered by 1/2 brick, placed on the edge and coated with clay mortar. During cleaning, this brick is knocked out, and at the end of cleaning it is replaced with a new one. Now they often put a special metal plug instead of a brick..
The twenty-fourth row is a continuation of the laying of the above channels.
Twenty-fifth row. A channel for installing a view is highlighted in this row..
The twenty-sixth row involves building up the strangler channel, then the overtube channel is blocked and the view is installed.
The twenty-seventh row is laid out, as shown in the order. To access the view, a half-door is installed opposite it.
The twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth and thirtieth rows suggest further laying of channels with ligation of sutures.
The thirty-first row, according to the order, connects the strangler and the pipe through a narrow passage.
The thirty-second row overlaps the stranglehold and the channel connecting the strap with the pipe. The valve for the tube above the pipe channel is also installed here..
The thirty-third and subsequent rows to the ceiling suggest laying the pipe channel.
Not reaching three rows to the ceiling, cutting is done to increase the thickness of the brickwork. This increases the fire safety of timber floor and roof structures. Next, the pipe riser is laid out the same dimensions as before cutting. To avoid the accumulation of condensate on the pipe walls, the pipe stand is plastered over a metal mesh. As the pipe passes through the timber roof structures, the wall thickness of the channel also increases. The upper part of the pipe must be protected from precipitation by a metal cap. The outside of the pipe is laid on a cement-sand mortar. For durability, it can be plastered.
1 – cutting; 2 – overlap; 3 – insulation; 4 – pipe riser; 5 – metal sheet; 6 – otter; 7 – pipe neck; 8 – head; 9 – metal cap
The height of the outer part of the pipe to improve traction depends on its distance relative to the roof ridge.
Before full operation of the oven, it must be dried. The first combustion is carried out within 2 hours with a small amount of fuel. If the stove gives a lot of smoke, then a small fire is also lit on the view, when it goes out, the view is opened completely. After that, the stove is ignited again without closing the chimney overnight. The furnace-drying process takes about a week..