- Used materials and oven appliances
- Required tools for oven work
- Base – monolithic concrete foundation
- Features of brickwork oven
- General view of the furnace
- Initial furnace furnace
The Hollandka stove is an ideal option for heating a country house during the cool period of seasonal living. It is economical in terms of fuel consumption, has a high heat transfer and therefore quickly warms up the room. In rural houses without heating, it is sometimes built into a Russian stove and used in the summer to heat the hob.
Used materials and oven appliances
The material for the furnace is ordinary clay brick in accordance with GOST 390–96. It is very important that it is well burnt and, when tapped, makes a clear, clear sound. Cracked unburned brick will significantly reduce the strength and durability of the masonry.
Clay, most often red, is used as a binder when laying stoves. It was conventionally divided into three types according to the amount of sand in the composition:
- fatty – 2-3% of the total;
- medium – 15%;
- skinny – up to 30%.
The composition of the solution: clay, sand and water. The more sand in natural clay, the less it is added to the clay. The clay-sand ratio for different clays is:
- for oily – 1: 2.5;
- for medium – 1: 1.5;
- for skinny – 1: 1.
The sand is used fine with a particle size of less than 1 mm, so it is sieved through a sieve (mesh 1–1.5 mm). You can use ready-made heat-resistant masonry mixture.
Consumption of materials:
- Ordinary clay bricks (excluding pipes) – 450 pieces.
- Grate 180×250 mm – 1 piece.
- Furnace door 205×205 m – 1 piece.
- Blowing door – 1 piece.
- Smoke damper 130×240 mm – 2 pieces.
- Pre-furnace metal sheet 500×700 mm – 1 piece.
Furnace and blower doors
Grate and smoke damper
Required tools for oven work
Stove masonry is done with the same tool as any brickwork.
1 – hammer pick; 2 – trowels and trowels; 3 – mallet; 4 – chopping cord; 5 – plumb line; 6 – laser level; 7 – rule; 8 – building level
Base – monolithic concrete foundation
It is better to make a separate foundation for the oven. It can also be installed on the floor if it has sufficient bearing capacity, which is verified by calculation.
In rooms where the temperature is positive all year round, the strength of the soil and the depth of groundwater affect the depth of the foundation. Under favorable conditions, the minimum distance between the bottom of the foundation and the planning mark at the outer side of the wall should be 0.5 m.
If the building has interruptions in heating in winter and within 2 meters under the stove there are soils with water: sandy loam, silty and fine sands, loams, clays, the depth of the foundation is taken more than the calculated freezing depth of the soil. For sands, it is 1.8 m, for loams, clays – 1.6 m in central Russia.
1 – sand and gravel pad 150-200 mm; 2 – concrete foundation; 3 – waterproofing of 2 layers of roofing material; 4 – oven brickwork
If the concrete mixture is prepared independently, then it will be required for 1 m3 concrete:
- Cement М400 – 325 kg.
- Medium sand – 1300 kg.
- Crushed stone or gravel – 1300 kg.
- Water – 205 l.
Important! All ingredients are subject to requirements that comply with SNiP and GOST.
For concreting, you will need the following tool:
- Shovel for laying the mixture.
- Trowel for smaller jobs.
- Homemade rammers or vibrator for compacting fresh concrete.
- Concrete mixer, or container for preparing concrete mixture.
- Trowel for leveling laid concrete.
In dense, non-crumbling soils for concrete placing, formwork can be omitted. The hole is dug according to the size of the foundation. It exceeds the size of the oven in plan by 10 cm around the entire perimeter. A gravel (crushed stone), sand-gravel or sandy compacted cushion 15–20 cm thick is laid on a compacted soil base.
In crumbling soils, formwork is required. If the stove is installed near the wall, under which a continuous strip foundation is laid, then the concrete base of the stove should be 5–10 cm away from it. The groove between them is filled with compacted sand. It is better to lay both foundations together so as not to weaken the wall structure..
To ensure the strength of the entire foundation of the furnace, it is better to lay the mixture at one time. The process of placing concrete is carried out in layers with compulsory compaction with rammers or a deep vibrator.
Stripping can be done if there is no danger of destruction of concrete that has not gained sufficient strength. At temperatures above +5 ° C, this is possible after 1-2 weeks.
From the moment of placing fresh concrete, it needs to ensure a normal hardening regime. It is insulated at temperatures below +5 ° C and watered when it is hot and windy, at least 3 times a day.
Foundation concreting ends at a mark 15 cm below the finished floor mark.Then, 2 layers of waterproofing (roofing material) are laid on the surface of the furnace base.
Features of brickwork oven
It is necessary to start laying the stove in a room protected from precipitation. You can make a temporary cover. The brick must be selected in advance for each row, taking into account the brick prism and the bandaging of the seams.
For one or two days, the clay is soaked, large pieces are crushed. Water is added gradually and for the last time just before the start of work. A high-quality mortar does not crack or crumble when it dries in the masonry. The brick is immersed in water for 2 minutes before laying..
The joint size for oven masonry is 5 mm or less. The internal surfaces of the oven are rubbed every 4–5 rows with a wet wash brush or a simple rag. When using chipped bricks, the rough side is installed outside.
Steel legs or steel wire are attached to the oven doors, which are placed in the seam of the masonry. Installation of all metal devices is carried out simultaneously with the masonry.
1 – steel legs; 2 – steel wire
General view of the furnace
1 – blower door; 2 – furnace door; 3 – cleaning doors; 4 – grate; 5 – gate valves
2 rows of bricks are made to the finished floor with bandaging of the seams, and only then the laying of the first row begins.
The first row is counted from the finished floor mark. The two middle bricks are beveled towards the ash pan. The space between the ash pan wall and the rear wall of the furnace is filled with dry sand from the first to the third row inclusive.
In the second row, a blower door is inserted with a gap of 3-5 mm, filled with an asbestos cord. Steel lugs or wire of the door are embedded in the masonry.
The third row repeats the laying of the second, taking into account the bandaging of the seams in 1/2 brick. Ligation of shortened bricks is allowed less.
The fourth row assumes partial overlap of the ash pan. A steel strip 35×4 mm is laid under the brick to cover the ash pan. At the back of the kiln, the sand is covered with bricks.
Fifth row. On the open part of the ash pan, a grate is laid with gaps along the firebox and a gap of 5 mm, which is compacted with sand or ash. The bricks are mowed here according to the order.
In the sixth row, a furnace door is laid with a gap sealed with an asbestos cord. Back wall bricks are beveled.
From the seventh to the twelfth row, the firebox is laid with bandaging of the seams according to the orders.
From the thirteenth to the fifteenth row, the firebox is blocked and the rear smoke channel is laid out.
The sixteenth row assumes the installation of a cleaning.
Canals are being laid from the seventeenth to the twentieth row.
The twenty-first, twenty-second rows combine two channels: lifting and lowering.
The twenty-third and twenty-fourth rows assume overlapping of the middle and back canals.
In the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth row, a cleaning is installed.
From the twenty-seventh to the thirtieth row, canals are being laid. In the twenty-eighth row, the valve fits.
On the thirty-first row, bricks are laid with releases for future overlap.
In the thirty-second row, an overlap is made, and a valve is installed.
The thirty-third, thirty-fourth rows continue the laying of the ceiling and the smoke channel.
A pipe is being erected from the thirty-fifth row.
Not reaching three rows to the ceiling, they make a fluff. It is necessary as a fire-fighting measure. The thickness of the pipe walls in the places where the ceiling made of combustible materials passes through should be 380 mm, at least.
When the pipe comes out above the roof, an otter is made on it to protect the roof from water penetration.
The height of the pipe for better traction above the roof depends on the distance to the ridge.
We talked in more detail about the passage of the pipe through the roof in the article “How to make the passage of ventilation and chimney through the roof”.
Initial furnace furnace
The initial heating of the stove is carried out carefully using 20% of the fuel rate (dry shavings, firewood, wood chips). This is necessary to dry the oven. It takes 3 to 8 days to heat in this mode. The oven surface temperature should not exceed 60 ° C. This opens all latches and doors. The oven is ready for normal operation when damp spots have disappeared from its surface.