Houses made of SIP panels using Canadian technology and the like are distinguished by the shortest construction time. We will describe the main stages of the construction of buildings, starting from the foundation and ending with floors, and also give answers to the most pressing questions related to the technology of construction from self-supporting insulated wire.
Foundation and floor
The very idea of combining strength and heat-insulating properties in one material is very attractive. However, such a combination of qualities simply could not do without the ensuing specificity of the construction process. In many ways, the quality of construction depends on a properly constructed and reliable foundation..
Of course, the most powerful types of foundations, such as monolithic slab and NZLF, can be arranged without regard to further compatibility. However, Canadian technology pursues high budget savings, so excess strength is not entirely appropriate here..
Traditionally, the foundation for a frame house made of self-supporting insulated wire is carried out using pile-grillage technology, including the use of screw piles. Since the dead weight of the structure ultimately turns out to be minimal, the reliability of the base is determined not so much by the supporting ability as by the resistance to frost heaving and lateral shifts..
The width of the grillage is traditionally determined by the thickness of the panels with a small margin, that is, 200–320 mm. Moving the panels outward makes it easy enough to lay the joists of the frame floor on the formed inner ledge. Such a mutual arrangement of the floor and walls excludes blowing and is characterized by the best indicators of heat saving. The grillage itself can be cast from sand concrete or assembled from a wooden bar with a cut at the intersections. In the latter case, it is necessary to provide embedded studs-anchors for a strong tightening of the joints.
Even if the foundation is made prefabricated or strip, when installing floors on the ground or organizing a basement, it is worth orienting the floor system in this way – with the formation of an internal ledge. Otherwise, both the internal structure of the self-supporting insulated wire and the insulation in the floor remain subject to erosion by air and moisture..
Usually, the floor frame is made of pine planks placed on the edge. The width of the board determines the thickness of the external ventilated insulation layer, it is at least 150 mm. On top of the logs, standard wall panels are laid, and if the floor is arranged without their use, a multi-tiered cross crate is mounted, separated by a vapor-tight membrane. The main advantage of such a floor system is that the joining of wooden segments is very simple. Both wooden braces and metal brackets can be used for this..
Frame supporting wall system
In most projects of panel low-rise housing construction, self-supporting insulated wires perform the function of a supporting base for the subsequent installation of interfloor, attic and roof ceilings. They perfectly take the load along the vertical vector, but they do not withstand the accompanying effects such as lateral shears, wind and seismic loads. In addition, a certain system is needed that will reliably and technologically connect the panels to each other..
If the self-supporting insulated wire is made in a wood sheath, it would be most reasonable to use racks made of edged boards or beams, the width of which corresponds to the installation groove at the ends of the panels, that is, the internal gap between their shells. The use of wood eliminates most of the cold bridges, while the material for the frame itself is affordable and ubiquitous. Possible gaps in thermal protection are eliminated by filling with polyurethane foam. In this version, the function of transverse bonding of the panels to give the building overall rigidity is assigned to the frame systems of the floor and floors..
When working with a sandwich with a metal shell, the frame is made according to a more complex scheme. According to generally accepted technology, metal panels should be attached to the T-pillars by means of special anchors. At the same time, cold bridges are not formed at all: due to the grooves of a special shape, the panels tightly adjoin each other and form a rather dense “thermos” around the perimeter of the building.
However, with the vertical arrangement of panels, including wooden ones, they are located in the sections of the frame between the posts. The breathability is eliminated by overlays on the outside. The technique of combining the frame and panels in the same row is most justified in regions with a mild climate, and its main advantage is the smaller wall thickness compared to the internal arrangement of the frame.
The main charm of multi-storey buildings from self-supporting insulated wire is in their modular design. The walls of the lower floor are covered with a precast slab, and the next floor is erected on the resulting plane, and so on. However, such a system is not without difficulties, most of which are closely related to the reliability of fastening multidirectional elements..
Still, the overlap defines the lateral and diagonal stiffness, preventing the walls from collapsing or folding. And since it must support the full thickness of the wall, there is a problem with end protection..
In the simplest case, the panels are covered with a crown of a board laid flat on the upper open end of the walls. From above, a second similar board is installed on the edge, pulled by screws from below to the crown. It is easier to knock down such an L-shaped element on the ground, and then install it as an assembly. It is attached to the embedded beams inside the panels and to the frame posts. Internal load-bearing partitions are covered with one board without a vertical rib.
On top of the crown, a system of longitudinal beams is assembled, calculated according to the bending strength of a wooden beam. Between themselves, the beams are connected by jumpers with an offset in each row, the installation step is normalized by the dimensions of the insulation. As with the flooring system, it is beneficial to use a board placed on the edge. The overlap can be covered with panels, while the lower frame remains empty until the installation is completed for mounting from below. After that, insulation is laid in the cells and the draft ceiling of the lower floor is hemmed.
SIP provides maximum opportunities for performing facade decoration of almost any kind. The exception is systems that have their own reinforced frame base. However, in the presence of a metal frame in the enclosing structures, it is possible to enclose a house from a self-supporting insulated wire even with a ventilated facade.
For more budget types of finishes, the sandwich is perfect. The panels create a flat and solid surface that can be immediately covered with façade plaster or siding. Some construction projects provide for the preparation of the wall with wooden battens for ventilation with outside air. Profiles for gypsum boards can be used with the same success..
If the topcoat is applied directly to the self-supporting insulated wire, general structural reinforcement of the plaster using meshes and canvases can be avoided. However, it is strongly recommended to reinforce the joints between the panels using carbon fiber or fiberglass impregnated with a strong polymer adhesive..
For most roofing systems with an attic, there is no fundamental difference in what material the walls are made of. However, when installing a flat roof, some difficulties may arise..
In this case, the opposite walls from the self-supporting insulated wire are made of different heights. From above they are covered with thick beams, forming a mauerlat. A sub-roof overlap is arranged along the slope: longitudinal boards on the edge or a wooden I-beam. Support to internal load-bearing walls or a preparatory slab is carried out by means of vertical supports. The gables in such houses are sewn up with an OSB trim, fixed to a light wooden frame.
On top of the rafters, a solid or board crate is made, and then the covering is laid. It is important to remember that for the correct perception of the load, the rafter system must have a common direction with the lags of the attic floor, although in most buildings these two elements are combined into a common A-shaped or triangular truss.