- Which buildings are more prone to fires and why
- The causes of fire hazards in private houses and how to avoid the risk
- The dilapidated state of the dwelling
- The predominance of wooden structures
- Long periods of absence of people in the house
- Active fire fighting measures
- Fire prevention measures
From the article you will learn about various fire safety measures that are relevant for a country house. We will tell you about the methods of fighting fire, as well as about the actions aimed at preventing a fire. The article provides examples of specific fire safety methods for a private house.
Which buildings are more prone to fires and why
According to GOST 12.1.004-91 SSBT “Fire safety. General requirements “residential buildings are classified as fire hazard category 1. This means that against the background of other structures, they have the least likelihood of fire, since they do not involve the production and storage of flammable substances. However, this does not prevent accidental fire from destroying up to 1000 buildings annually (across Russia).
Another important indicator – the degree of fire resistance of a building, is determined primarily by the material of the structure. The entire house can be conditionally divided into zones that differ significantly in this regard. Below we will provide ways of passive protection for them..
Comparing private houses with apartment buildings in this context, it should be noted: despite the fact that high-rise buildings are made of concrete and brick, a fire in them can cause more harm to a person than a fire in a private house. Poisoning occurs not because of fire, but from carbon monoxide – sometimes people simply do not have time to escape because of a blocked staircase and armored doors. If the fire is small, a pungent burning smell and problems from extinguishing with water will affect the entire entrance.
The causes of fire hazards in private houses and how to avoid the risk
The problem of a private house in a fire is that it can burn out completely, or become completely unusable. Based on the experience of firefighters and statistics, the following causes of the occurrence and spread of fire can be distinguished.
The dilapidated state of the dwelling
In an unkempt home, the wiring is usually poor. In this case, heating devices are operated regularly.
What to do:
- If there is such a house in your neighborhood – triple your vigilance.
- If you got such a house, change the wiring first. Pay attention to calculating the load on your network – this is where the advice of an electrician from the city service will help. Technicians of state-owned enterprises know the realities of their networks and will advise on how to correctly calculate the load.
- All wiring hidden in the walls must be in a metallized armored sleeve and be insulated in it.
The predominance of wooden structures
Of course, a stone house is more resistant to fire. However, this is not a reason to give up wooden buildings and finishing materials..
What to do:
- It is possible to improve the fire resistance of any sawn timber by vacuum autoclave impregnation with fire retardants (done in conjunction with antiseptics). With this treatment, the substance penetrates into the fibers of the tree, becomes part of it. This increases the fire resistance of wood 3 times, and its cost 2 times.
- Use non-combustible insulation. It is easy to implement in practice, since all mineral wool (including ecowool) are non-combustible, and polymer plates (polystyrene, etc.) are not recommended in wooden structures for other reasons.
- Additional wood protection is silicatization. Simply put, if you cover the rafter system or other wooden elements with liquid glass, it will become inaccessible to fire. Material consumption – about 200 g / m2. At a price of 0.7 USD That is, per kg of silicate, this is quite an acceptable waste.
- Be attentive to the norms of operation of gas equipment, stoves, fireplaces. This is especially true for ventilation and non-combustible surfaces around the device (these rules were written based on fire statistics).
Long periods of absence of people in the house
In this case, the house turns into a defenseless object that can become a victim of hooligans, an accidental fire or take fire from a neighboring house. Neglect of a fire condition can result in a complete loss of property.
What to do:
- Take the measures described above if possible.
- If the house is expensive, it is best to hire a guard or put people in it for the duration of the departure.
- Pay attention to the neighboring houses – how fire hazard they are. Ensure the maximum acceptable distance between the walls of your and neighboring houses.
In addition to these measures, which are best taken into account during construction or major repairs, there are additional factors that increase the chances of avoiding fire situations..
Active fire fighting measures
Signaling. The rate of spread of fire is incredibly high and within 10-15 minutes after an internal fire, the question is not about saving things, but about preserving at least a box at home. The earlier the firefighter receives the signal, the less the house will receive.
Fire extinguishers. This expensive “accessory” is the most effective way to suppress a fire, especially an internal one. Unfortunately, this is often “forgotten” by the owners, hoping to save money, using luck.
Publicly available water supply. A container with water that can be used in the absence of electricity and pressure in the water supply. This also includes an open reservoir on the site (pond, pool, fountain), if possible, it can be used as an alternative to a fire extinguisher.
Fire prevention measures
Fence between neighbors. A wooden fence is dangerous. It burns perfectly, and if it falls, it will transmit the fire horizontally to its height plus another 50 cm (in total – up to 3.5 meters!). A metal or concrete fence can delay or even stop a fire.
Fire pump. If the house is supplied with water from a well or a well, install a low-power motor pump (2.5–5.5 hp) in the caisson or technical room with a 20 mm hose supply to the extreme point of the house. This device will help to cope with fire when the electricity is turned off. Run it periodically – it should be in working order. Notify your neighbors and provide them with access to the pump when you are away – they will be able to extinguish the fire in the vicinity and prevent it from reaching your house.
All the methods described are the result of statistics, but there is another extremely important factor that is superficially touched upon in the article. Maintain good relations with your neighbors – at a critical moment, they will be your watchmen and firefighters.