- First aid kit
- Minor injuries
- A cut
- The application of a splint, pressure, support for severe bruises and fractures of the limbs
The article lists the most common cases of injury and mutilation. You will find out what kind of help you need to give a person who has received a wound or injury to a limb. The article contains the causes, symptoms and remedies for various types of injuries that can be received at a construction site..
The construction site is an object of increased danger. Every student knows about it. Construction work is associated with physical labor, carrying heavy loads, the work of mechanisms and equipment and other dangerous factors. Carelessness or inexperience can cause injury. We will tell you what to do if this has already happened in this article..
First aid kit
Whatever the volume of work, the first thing that should appear at the facility is a first aid kit. First aid kit:
- Hydrogen peroxide or alcohol.
- Bandage (the more the better).
- Plaster, cotton wool.
- Pain Relief Tablets.
- Tourniquet, paper, pencil.
This simple kit will help to maintain performance if you use it together with improvised means in the first minutes after injury..
There should be no excess of pills and drugs in the first aid kit. For example, there is no need for “heart drops”, since physically healthy men work. In this case, the emphasis should be placed on bandages and a plaster to create a splint. The main purpose of the manipulations is, if possible, to prevent the deterioration of a person’s condition before the arrival of an ambulance.
Although minor injuries do not lead to long-term loss of performance, they can cause serious problems, such as blood poisoning.
First of all, determine what caused the injury. If the tool is conditionally clean (knife, disc, saw), it is enough to treat the wound with peroxide or alcohol and bandage (not tight) or seal with a plaster. The goal is to isolate the cut from dirt and infection.
If there is an open injury with a rusty object, you should immediately cleanse the wound from dirt, regardless of pain. Dirt or dirt getting into an open cut can cause tetanus or gangrene. The lacerated wound must be tightly bandaged so that its edges come together. As soon as possible, take a blood test, explaining to the health workers what happened.
Immediately after removing the object (nail, awl, knitting needle), it is necessary to squeeze blood out of the hole. It will be dark red, brown. This suggests that phagocytes and platelets are working – elements of the immune system. Seal the puncture site with a plaster and leave alone..
Attention! Do not massage, pull or bandage the bruised area.
The limb in case of injury, if there is no tissue rupture, should be immobilized and observed for 20-30 minutes. If motor functions are not impaired, but are accompanied by pain of moderate intensity, and the site of the injury has not significantly increased, then this is a soft tissue injury and you should just wait until the edema subsides. In this case, ointments such as “Troxevasin” are used.
If within 20-30 minutes the site of the injury has increased, motor functions are impaired and the pain increases, this may be a fracture, dislocation, hematoma of a bone or ligaments. It is necessary to provide peace to the person and call doctors. In this case, the limb should be above the level of the head (in the prone position).
The application of a splint, pressure, support for severe bruises and fractures of the limbs
If transportation is necessary, the limb must be fixed to the body. The easiest way is to hang the hand on a “kerchief” – a piece of fabric – passing it under the forearm and tying it around the neck. To transfer a person with a serious leg injury, you need to make a splint from scrap materials – board, plastic, plywood.
Attention! In no case should you fix both legs together – an injured leg may suffer from bending a healthy one.
In extreme conditions, you can simply tape or wire your leg to the board – even this will give a good chance of full recovery. A splint on the arm can be dispensed with if the person lies motionless on his back with his hand on his chest.
Attention! If the limb is severely swollen or bleeding, do not remove clothing or shoes for examination! This can worsen the condition of the wound. In such cases, the tissue is cut.
It is worth remembering one main rule – splints and supports for swollen limbs without bleeding are applied over clothing. There is no need to try to necessarily expose the site of injury or diagnose it. If there is no proven first aid skills – leave this job to doctors.
There are three types of this symptom..
What does it look like. Blood oozes at a decreasing rate, the wound gradually heals.
When it happens. Occurs with minor cuts and abrasions, punctures, pressure surges (nasal).
What to do. Requires disinfection and rest.
What does it look like. Profuse, but without pressure, discharge of dark red thickish blood. Average pace.
When it happens. Observed with deep cuts, lacerations, open fractures, trauma to the veins.
What to do. Do not touch the site of injury and pull the vein higher in the limb (biceps, thigh). The hauling is done with a tourniquet or rags over the clothes. The injured person (if he is conscious) should not feel pain at the site of application. If the person is unconscious, take a drag until the blood stops. Ideally, it should ooze a little to avoid dangerous stagnation of blood. Then call an ambulance. After that, expose the site of injury (cut the tissue), treat with alcohol and apply a pressure bandage through the tampon.
Attention! When applying a banner, enclose a note with the overlay time in it. In winter, the tourniquet is applied for 1 hour, in summer – for 2 hours.
What does it look like. A jet under pressure, maybe even a “fountain”. Color – scarlet, pale red. The injured one weakens quickly.
When it happens. In the same cases as venous, but with damage to the artery.
What to do. Urgently stop the blood by squeezing the limb higher with your hands. If there is not enough coverage (at the thigh), locate the passage of the artery on the inner side of the thigh and transfer it. Then pull the limb with the available material (cord, rope, wire) and transport the person to the room. There, apply a constriction and a pressure bandage, observing the rules described above.
The described first aid techniques for bleeding are also effective when a limb is torn off. If it so happens that a finger or a hand is cut off, apply the hemostatic constriction closer to the site of injury – 3-4 cm from it. If possible, give the lost limb to doctors. A finger sewn on within an hour restores functions by 60-70%.
Arrogance and bravado are a major contributor to injury. Most often, injuries are caused by experienced workers who neglect protection and insurance. Compliance with the rules and safety measures and attentiveness are the main insurance against injuries. Therefore, cautious newcomers get to hospitals from the workplace less often. If a person is injured in your presence, do not try to do the impossible – to heal him on the spot. It is enough to take simple but vital measures before the arrival of doctors.