Recommendation points


It is necessary to supply the baths with thermal energy to the energy of renewable energy sources (RES), because everywhere, to meet the physiological needs of man, there is an excessive intrusion into the biological balance of Nature. These are intensive self-procurement of firewood for heating water in baths or using electrical energy.

The proposed scheme of a heliobane (solar bath), developed in the Design Bureau of Alternative Energy “VODOMET” (Omsk), located at the basement level (there are other options).

This heliobanne has a sauna and a relaxation room in the basement of the building, while the steam room is located in a sunny salt pond located at the southern wall of this building (Figure 1).

Figure 1 – Scheme of the heliobani
1 – solar radiation, 2 – solar radiation concentrator, 3 – solar salt pond, 4 – steam room, 5 – sauna department, 6 – relaxation room

The maintenance of the required temperature in the rooms of the solarium is carried out due to the fact that the walls of the steam room 4 and its internal space are constantly heated to a temperature of 90 – 95? С from direct and reflected from the surface 2 solar radiation 1 accumulated by the solar salt pond 3. To the main advantages of such heating the steam room is: increased comfort; elimination of “cold radiation” from the walls of the steam room, with appropriate transfer of heat from the steam room 4 to the bath compartment 5; preventing the formation of drafts. The “combustion” of oxygen by heating installations is excluded due to their absence.

Washing (shower) compartment 5 will be warmed up due to the incoming heat from the steam room and the solar salt pond, through their enclosing structures. In the rest room (dressing room) 6, the temperature will no longer be much higher than in the rest of the basement. However, since the deepening of the entire structure into the ground is significant, the temperature in the rest room will be lower than outside. This is especially important in the south of Russia, where the air temperature in summer is more than 30? C in the shade. Of course, the washing department, recreation room and hallway can be located above ground level or at a distance from the building, depending on the geographic location and the wishes of the developer.

Since the proposed bath is new not only in its structure, but also the value of the temperature fields in the steam room 4 has not been determined (investigated), then when it is put into operation, the presence of experienced doctors will be required. However, since the heat in the steam room should cover a person from all sides, placing it (steam room) in the bottom layer of a solar salt pond is a clear advantage over traditional baths. The water supply laid along the bottom of the pond will provide round-the-clock heating of the water supplied for the shower. And since the temperature is stable in the bottom layer of the pond, the solar bath will provide people with water at any time..

Heliobanya is a bathhouse with 100% availability at any time of the day.

After summer operation, in winter, steam room 4 can be used to store a supply of industrial water (with temperature control, excluding defrosting of the case), and after cooling the pond, including through a heat pump (HP), for storing, for example, a stock of butane, as a fuel energy resource.

The thermal insulation of the pond for the winter, when using its low-grade heat to heat the building with the help of HP, can be carried out, for example, with foam plates.

In addition to using the solar energy accumulated by the pond for washing, it can be used for drying various materials and products, as well as for cooking. The advantages of using solar energy while ensuring the indicated thermal processes are given in tables 1, 2, 3, 4.

This is a summary analysis of the most effective; from the point of view of minimization: energy losses; consumption of man-made materials; negative impact on the environment and humans, technologies for using the most common type of renewable energy sources – solar energy, to ensure thermal processes.

Table 1 – Advantages and disadvantages of solar energy systems and installations designed to provide thermal processes in central Russia.

System type (installation) Benefits disadvantages Application area
Helio dryer Simplicity.
The minimum number of technological conversions.
Work on accumulated solar energy in a pond up to 2 weeks.
Significant area and volume of the pond.
The presence of a large concentrator of solar energy.
In areas with a low density of residence and location of production.
Solar furnace
Flat solar collector The minimum number of technological conversions.
Small size.
A backup heat source is required. In a dense urban environment.

table 2 – Operational characteristics, as a first approximation, of solar energy systems and installations designed to provide thermal processes in central Russia.

System type (installation) Operation period Unfavorable climatic factors Specific energy production, kW / 100 m2 Kium *,%
Helio dryer Spring Summer Autumn Dust, wind 15 one hundred
Solar furnace
Flat solar collector All year round Hail, dust, snow, rain, wind. Cold weather 7 25

* coefficient of utilization of installed capacity

Table 3 – Economic features of solar energy systems and installations designed to provide thermal processes in central Russia.

System type (installation) Natural materials used Other materials used
scroll life time scroll life time
Helio dryer Water, salt, soil, clay, pebbles, sand >90% of the system weight Is not limited Metal, plastics Up to 10 years
Solar furnace
Flat solar collector Metals, glass, plastics Up to 10 years

Table 4 – Social and environmental characteristics of solar energy systems and installations designed to provide thermal processes in central Russia.

System type (installation) Impact on employment Impact on energy security Impact on the environment
Helio dryer New industries and public services are being created The dependence of the territorial entity, production and everyday life on fuel supplies is reduced
Solar furnace
Flat solar collector Work places are created for the maintenance of the installation Harmful emissions from a backup source of thermal energy

Technical and economic characteristics of GB-50 heliobani

  • Solar salt pond 2.3 m deep (with thermal insulation) 50 m2 (8.33 × 6 m) with heating capacity – 40 MW • h / season*
    (* season – 215 days for 55 ° north latitude, excluding work as a shower with a water temperature of 40 – 45 ° С and a temperature in a steam room 50 – 70 ° С).
  • The average daily amount of heat with a temperature of 90 – 95? C, accumulated by a pond for heating water and a steam solar bath – 186 kWh
  • The daily amount of water heated from 14 to 45? С – 5330 l
  • The amount of water with a temperature of 45 ° C required for washing one person – 50 – 55 l
  • Number of visitors – 100 people / day
  • Heat consumption for one wash – 1.85 kWh

Cost of heliobani GB-50

The estimated cost of the GB-50 heliobani is 600 * thousand rubles and consists of:

  • The cost of a solar salt pond – 100 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of reflective polished aluminum panels (tiles) on the wall of a building with an area of ​​80 m220 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of a steam room – a steel pipe with a diameter of 2220 mm, a thickness of 16 mm and a length of 4.5 m – 130 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of the sauna department, dressing room and hallway (2 garages, soap dishes with finishing and equipment) – 300 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of other non-basic structures and mechanisms – 50 thousand rubles.

(* a pond with a steam room can be attached to a regular bath or shower).

Heliobanya GB-50 is designed for a service life of 20 years, with repairs after 10 years of operation – replacement of fittings, etc. equipment.

The reduced costs for one wash in the GB-50 helioban

Z = C + E? K = 20 + 0.12 (600,000 rubles / 21,500 * washings per season) = 23.4 rubles / wash, where: S = 20 rubles ** – the cost of 1 wash, which is the sum of the salary maintenance of the bathhouse for 4 – 5 hours, solar salt pond for 0.5 – 1 hour and the rest of the day on duty. With 100 washings per day, the payment is 1000 rubles. (30,000 rubles per month);

E = 0.12 – the standard coefficient of efficiency of capital investments in the energy sector (with a payback period of 8.3 years);

K – capital investment in the GB-50 solar bath for 1 wash.

* Excluding the use of the solarium in early spring and late autumn only as a shower
** Including consumption of electricity and water and detergents. In winter, the steam room can be used to store a safety stock of gas – butane or purified biogas.

After the payback period, the reduced costs for 1 wash will be determined only by the remuneration of the maintenance personnel.

Of course, the list of used sources of thermal energy can be expanded with geothermal heat and biomass. However, geothermal heat is a source of energy for collective use, and biomass as a fuel is not available in large volumes for residents of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. And besides, biomass has a false ecological purity, due to emissions during its combustion..

The widespread use of heliobahn in central Russia will significantly reduce unnecessary fuel consumption, improve the environmental situation, raise the energy security of the recreation and utilities industry and increase their energy sovereignty.

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