- How much does it cost to build a house?
- What is the essence of the concept of deferred construction?
- Second floor superstructure
- Extension of the first floor
- Development of the communication system
The limitations of the IZhS budget should not necessarily be expressed in the use of cheap building materials and the attraction of low-skilled workers. will acquaint readers with the concept of a house for growth, which allows building up a plot with limited funds without compromising quality.
How much does it cost to build a house?
There are two approaches to minimizing construction costs. The first is practiced by numerous real estate developers offering suburban housing at prohibitively low prices. In disputes about the minimum cost of a private house, many copies have been broken, but reports from practitioners show that the required amount is approaching 5-7 million rubles. with independent participation and about 10 million rubles. if the whole process is performed by a complex contractor.
How is the ridiculous price tag of 2.5-3 million rubles formed? for a turnkey house? Officially – due to space wholesale discounts and a streamlined technological process, in practice – due to the purchase of the cheapest materials, deliberately underestimating the grade of concrete and the content of reinforcement, violation of construction technology and the use of low-skilled labor. As a result, the building has a more or less presentable appearance, but at the same time it is absolutely unsuitable for living due to complete non-observance of the norms for heat and noise insulation.
The second approach is to limit the volume of construction work and the materials used with the goal of strictly adhering to technical recommendations and construction rules. In other words, a reduction in quantity in favor of quality. As a rule, the majority of customers are young families with an average income, for whom the need for the requested amount of living space comes only after a certain time. Far from everyone can invest in construction in full, much more often a loan is issued at a high interest rate. Thus, the house turns into a source of expenses for the next 2-3 decades, especially tangible if we take into account the cost of heating the temporarily unused usable area of housing.
What is the essence of the concept of deferred construction?
The most rational solution is to first provide yourself with housing based on basic current needs. At the same time, the project of the house is being developed taking into account the possibility of development in the future. This is not reflected in additional investments, however, the technologist requires special knowledge and skills..
The growth home concept takes into account the need to live in a newly built home during its expansion. At the same time, at the moment of combining the living space, the interior is not disturbed and, in general, the influence of the construction of the second stage on the main structure is minimal. With the correct design development, the issues of logistics and organization of the construction site are also taken into account: where the concrete unit will be located, whether the construction equipment will be able to drive up to the object, how to equip the life of employees and the like. Basically, in the second and subsequent stages of construction development, they try to avoid dirty work and the use of heavy construction equipment..
Before moving on to specific examples and implementation methods, there are several more important aspects to consider. It is worth taking a closer look at the concept of a house “for growth” even if the amount of savings allows you to immediately implement the construction in the required volume.
Firstly, the influence of force majeure circumstances is significantly reduced: since the whole process is divided into stages, you can simply stop at a certain moment and move into the part that is already ready, and proceed to the completion of construction after a crisis situation. If at the same time the building is managed by the general contractor, the total cost does not increase over time.
Secondly, the very essence of the concept obliges the use of advanced technical solutions and is a kind of filter that filters out unscrupulous and unprofessional contractors who, in principle, are not able to build high-quality and modern housing.
Thirdly, houses erected using the technology of postponed construction belong to that few category of buildings for which the final characteristics are known in advance: heat saving and sound insulation indicators, fire safety, service life before major repairs, etc. Design and construction companies that implement this concept in practice, adhere to compliance with SNiP also in individual construction, declaring their obligations in the contract. This is not common in the construction market in Russia, because, as a rule, developers use the opportunity to deviate from regulatory requirements: the law simply does not oblige them to comply with IZHS.
The last argument is the most important, since a guarantee of the construction organization’s compliance with regulatory rules and final characteristics is a mandatory basis for insuring suburban real estate. Additional advantages are promised by relations with a large company that has sufficient resources for internal investment and a number of already implemented standard projects. All this makes it possible to use a house that has not yet been built as collateral, respectively, the bank will be able to provide loans for construction on a mortgage with a low loan, which is a very significant bonus for individual housing construction.
Second floor superstructure
The main way to implement the postponed construction of a house is to build it in two stages according to the principle of vertical growth. First, a flat-roofed apartment house is built. As a rule, for this purpose, composite concrete panels or thin-seam aerated concrete masonry are used with subsequent external insulation. The first stage ends with the construction of a flat roof, which later turns into an interfloor ceiling.
The development of the project is most often expressed in the construction of an attic, although options with the construction of a full-fledged second floor are possible. Here the main advantages of a flat roof are manifested, because, in fact, the overhead costs are expressed in the cost of waterproofing, which, upon completion of the superstructure, ceases to perform its direct function, as well as the cost of a self-leveling screed, which levels the slope. Otherwise:
- Floor insulation is dismantled to normalize the thermal balance between floors, but can be used as facade insulation for a stone superstructure or under-roof insulation for a wooden attic.
- The ballast of a flat roof is also removed, but it does not lose its value as a building material and can be used as a filler for concrete or as a backfill in the surrounding area.
- The parapet of a flat roof turns into an excellent seismic belt, allowing the construction of structures with high deformability or significant dead weight, thus, the material of the second floor can be almost anything: from glued beams to bricks.
At the same time, the overlap, which is carried out mainly using precast monolithic or monolithic technology, has much higher qualities. It provides full sound insulation between floors, has high vibration resistance, and the operating load is about 300-500 kg / m2, which allows the organization on the second floor not only of living quarters, but also of a gym or workshop.
The vertical growth design is calculated in such a way that after completion the building has a continuous thermal protection belt and can have a solid façade finish after a cosmetic exterior renovation. For example, for a stone superstructure after the installation of facade insulation and plastering work, it is enough just to paint the house again from the basement to the cornice – solely to remove the color difference.
Extension of the first floor
The horizontal expansion concept is considered less beneficial for a number of reasons:
- Increased costs for roofing and foundations.
- Far from optimal thermal balance of the building.
- Difficulty complying with insolation standards.
However, this method of implementation may also appeal to individual homeowners, for example, people with disabilities or those who simply dislike the very format of a multi-storey private house..
There are few fundamental differences in the concept of a house for growth with a horizontal expansion scheme. The basic module is also being built, to which others are docked afterwards, forming a single structure with a continuous thermal protection belt. Only the technical implementation method and the ratio of costs at different stages are changing.
Technically, the implementation of the postponed construction is expressed in the laying of a common foundation, as a rule, in the format of an insulated slab, over the entire area of the future building. Also, a single multi-pitched roof is formed, which in one part rests on the box of the base module, in the other – on the frame load-bearing structure. Thus, the space between the roof and the foundation can be divided in different proportions into a base module and an open terrace, the territory of which is intended for further expansion of the house. As with vertical growth, the terrace area can be exploited. It is appropriate to arrange a summer recreation area on it, organize a storage place for building materials, construction equipment and household equipment, or even a covered parking for a car..
In terms of the cost ratio, the horizontal expansion scheme is distinguished by more significant investments at the first stage, because it is on it that all the capital parts of the structure are built. Subsequent investments, as a rule, account for only 25-30% of the total budget, because in fact they represent the costs of relatively inexpensive masonry and finishing.
Development of the communication system
One of the main difficulties is the mutual integration of the engineering support of both parts of the house. Depending on the type of communications, the complexity and technical solutions may differ significantly.
So, for the laying of electrics and low-current networks there are no special restrictions, it is only necessary to lay in advance for finishing the taps from the main lines at the location of the future ASU. The same applies to the cold water supply and sewage system: in the first case, a muffled pipe outlet is enough, in the second the task is a little more difficult, because if the outlet is not made from the floor, the height must be coordinated with the further wiring diagram, taking into account the optimal slope.
The situation is a little more complicated with the DHW system. If the calculation is initially based on the use of one source of heating, possibly combined with a heating system, it is necessary to provide for both a hidden pipeline and a corresponding outlet from the collector. In some cases, it makes sense to consider the installation of a separate unit, be it a boiler or instantaneous water heater..
The general technical room where heating devices, a water treatment station and ventilation and recuperation equipment are located is located in the primary module of the house in the part farthest from the living quarters. However, in some cases it is necessary to organize similar premises and in the parts of the building belonging to the second stage. For example, it is quite difficult to organize an expandable liquid heating system that retains the gravity flow in the absence of power supply. Therefore, provided that it is equipped with just such a heating system, it is often necessary to arrange two boiler rooms or use electric convectors that do not require the organization of a central unit. Forced ventilation is organized according to the same principle: it is much easier to install two injection units, which do not take up much space, but at the same time there is no need to combine the duct system.
As you can see, the technology of deferred construction requires a high degree of organization and careful design development. Therefore, the question remains: will such a concept remain characteristic only of the West, or, over time, the CIS construction market will inherit a practical and rational approach to providing citizens with affordable private housing?
In fact, the practice of building houses “for growth” in Russia already exists, not only as an idea, but also in the form of fully completed projects available for review. The main problem, as always, is finding a contractor who can fully implement the technical idea. By the way, projects of such houses are in the public domain, which is only on hand to their developer: the technology will become more and more popular over time, while the importance of applying for implementation to a contractor who fully understands the principles of modern private housing construction will become more and more obvious.