- Traditional garages and their characteristics
- Sandwich panel garage – characteristics
- Installation of sandwich panels
- At the end
In this article: Characteristics of capital and metal garages; characteristics of a sandwich panel garage; how the panels are installed; at the end – a few requirements for the installation of buildings from sandwich panels.
Our own house is needed not only for us, but also for the favorite of the family – a car. It is pointless to count on the all-weather survival of a family vehicle, because its metal parts, especially the wings, are bound to rust and leak over time. Car owners use different ways to protect the car from weather phenomena – from a tarpaulin awning to a major garage built of bricks or cinder blocks. A common disadvantage of car shelters made of water-repellent fabric, metal or wall materials is the inability to maintain a positive temperature in them in winter, since it is expensive. And if you use sandwich panels for the construction of a garage, the heat transfer of which is minimal?
Traditional garages and their characteristics
Collapsible metal garages became especially popular in the early 90s, when a stream of used cars from abroad poured into Russia. A garage made of metal sheets fixed on a supporting frame or self-supporting (profiled) is cheap, does not require a massive foundation, it is quite simple to assemble and disassemble, which allows it to be transported from place to place when moving to a new house – however, you can not disassemble it. and lift with a crane and transport on a truck platform. The walls of such a garage are made of sheet metal 1.8-2.5 mm thick, they resist direct penetration well, but they can be overcome by lifting the garage structure completely (with a crane) or partially (using a jack).
There are only two drawbacks in metal garages, but each of them is very serious: the heat inside such a garage does not hold at all, with sudden temperature changes, the walls from the inside become covered with condensate, which causes them to rust and contributes to the development of rust foci in the structural elements of the car, at low temperatures metal the garage is completely freezing; since metal walls conduct cold and heat equally well, when a fire source appears near the garage, fire will inevitably penetrate inside and destroy the car.
Capital garage made of bricks, reinforced concrete, cinder blocks, foam blocks, etc. much more durable than its metal counterparts. Such a garage will protect the car from fire outside, it is extremely difficult for intruders to penetrate through its walls, in winter the temperature inside will be several degrees higher than outside. Disadvantages of a major garage: its construction will be expensive and take time; a solid foundation is needed; condensation is deposited on the inner surface of the walls, high-quality ventilation is required; unheated garages freeze at low temperatures; with the exception of cast reinforced concrete structures, it is impossible to transport capital garages.
Sandwich panel garage – characteristics
Using sandwich wall panels and a supporting frame made of metal or wood profiles, you can assemble a garage in a week. Sandwich panels, consisting of two sheets of painted or galvanized steel and an inner, heat-insulating layer of mineral wool or foam – their design combines high strength and low thermal conductivity.
The variety of the range of sandwich panels produced at the factory allows you to create a garage case, the wall and roof cladding of which will successfully withstand any climatic conditions (panel thickness 120-300 mm) – up to the harsh conditions of Murmansk and Yakutsk.
Advantages of building a garage with sandwich panels:
- a light strip foundation or reinforced concrete slab is enough as a base;
- installation work can be carried out at any time of the year, in almost any weather;
- transportation and assembly are carried out without the involvement of heavy special equipment; installation by non-professionals is allowed, subject to the technology and sequence of work;
- no external and internal paneling is required;
- the cost of sandwich panels, with the help of which a strong and insulated structure is created, is relatively low;
- the panels are resistant to external combustion, in the event of an internal fire, the fire will not go outside the structure formed by them, they conduct heat and cold poorly, do not affect the environment from the standpoint of ecology;
- the service life of a building made of sandwich panels is more than 30 years, subject to the installation technology. During the entire period of operation, the garage can be repeatedly assembled and disassembled.
Disadvantages of sandwich panels:
- sandwiches with mineral wool insulation are sensitive to air humidity in the room – in the absence of high-quality ventilation, panels with expanded polystyrene are more suitable;
- in the absence of a sealant at the junction and interface of the panels, these areas will freeze in winter – periodic replacement (restoration) of the butt seal is required;
- decorative and protective coating of panels is sensitive to scratches, it is impossible to completely restore its appearance after damage.
Like modular buildings, garages made of sandwich panels can be transported assembled and disassembled – the first option is convenient if the transportation distance is not great, and the structure of the building is made on a reliable metal frame.
Installation of sandwich panels
The panels are cut to fit the assembly size with metal scissors or hand saws capable of cold cutting – heating of the metal sheathing will cause partial destruction of the anti-corrosion finish. During cutting, the pressure on the surface of the panel should be small, it is important not to bend the metal. Do not scratch markings on panels!
The panels are fastened to the supporting structures with self-tapping screws of sufficient length, the minimum distance from the location of the self-tapping screw to the joint edge between the panels is 50 mm. A prerequisite is that each self-tapping screw must be screwed in only at an angle of 90 °! The number of panel attachment points to self-tapping screws depends on the wind load in a given area and the length of the sandwich panel run – on average, with a panel length of up to 2000 mm, it is fixed by 4 screws, with a length of up to 3000 mm – by 6 self-tapping screws, etc..
Until the completion of the installation work, the film that protects the outer surfaces of the sandwich panels from scratches should not be removed – only small areas are exposed at the locations of self-tapping screws and locking joints between the panels.
Installation of a horizontal row of sandwich panels starts from the left or right corner of the future wall – during the assembly process, it is important not to forget about installing a sealing tape between the panels and the frame elements to which they are attached. Installation of each next row is also carried out from the nearest corner – the butt panel is installed first. After the next sandwich panel is installed, it is necessary to align its position horizontally and vertically, to make sure that its geometry remains unchanged.
The inter-panel connection must be extremely tight. During the assembly process, a silicone sealant is put into the lock before joining the two panels, from the side facing the interior of the future room. On both sides of the panel, the sealant is laid during installation of the structure in a particularly harsh climate.
The transverse butt joints between the sections of the sandwich panels are sealed with mineral wool, if they are insulated with mineral wool or expanded polystyrene – in the second case, the joint joints can be blown out with polyurethane foam. At the end of the panel assembly, the sections of the butt seams are closed with shaped elements made of galvanized or painted steel – the profile of the shaped element should protrude on both sides of the seam by at least 50 mm. Before fixing the protective sheathing of the seams, you need to treat its inner surface with silicone sealant, fastening is performed on short self-tapping screws or using rivets.
Sandwich panels intended for roof cladding are attached to structures in the direction from the corner – the first row of panels is fixed along the length of the roof (from the overhang to the ridge), the second row is mounted next to it, etc. A sealant is introduced into the lower butt groove of the first panel, it is fixed with self-tapping screws, at the next panel, on its reverse side, you need to cut the end facing the first panel by 50–70 mm – as a result, we get a roof deck without joints.
During the installation of the sandwich panel roof, it is impossible to move around the laid panels – you must first lay a timber flooring on them, resting on independent supporting frames, or use special shoes.
At the end
The assembly of metal structures from sandwich panels must be carried out under the following conditions:
- in the rain, installation of panels with mineral wool filler should not be performed, because it will be almost impossible to remove moisture that has penetrated inside;
- at all stages of work, any construction equipment (hoists, etc.) or devices (ladders, scaffolding, etc.) must not be attached to the already installed panels – they can only be fixed on the supporting frame in areas not sheathed with a sandwich panels;
- do not forget to equip the roof of the building assembled from the panels with a high-quality drain – as in the case of any other roof, the installation of a drain is required;
- scratched areas on the cladding of sandwich panels must be painted over with oil paint – if the scratch affects only the galvanized layer, then in one layer, if the metal is visible, then two layers of paint are applied. Scratches with traces of rust are smoothed out, treated with a solvent and painted in two layers.