- Installation of step frames in a “duck step” on a bowstring
- Installation of handrails and fences
- Decorative painting of the metal frame
- How and from what to make wooden steps in the “duck step”
- How to economically make winding steps
- Transparent finishing of wooden steps – technology and choice of varnish
- Installation of wooden parts on a metal frame
A stylish and beautiful staircase is always an interior decoration. However, an elaborate staircase in a minimalist interior will not look good, as it will attract too much attention to itself. But the interlevel staircase should not be the center of the home universe. There are many other decorative elements that should be admirable. Correctly proportioning the style of decorating a staircase with all other elements is a task worthy of the original design performance. In the example with a metal staircase on one bowstring with two winding steps and nine degrees “duck step”, the design begins with the installation of the frames of these steps on the bowstring.
Installation of step frames in a “duck step” on a bowstring
The problematic place of the ladder on one string is the fastening of the step frame to the kosour. All the load that occurs when people move along it is applied to the center, and the magnitude of the load depends on the length of the lever arm formed by the tread of the step. That is, the further from the center of the ladder a person puts his foot, the greater the effort is transferred to the attachment point of the step to the stringer. Therefore, it is important that this mount is as reliable as possible. The strongest connection of metal parts is a welded joint.
Photo 1 shows that the frames of the steps in the “duck step” alternate with narrow and wide sides. In order to control the location of the steps relative to each other during welding, you can use a plumb line, which is clearly visible in photo 1. It is convenient to check the gap between the edge of the step and the slope of the opening using the plumb line fixed at the edge of the opening. This gap should be on the order of two centimeters. But the horizontal position of the steps in two planes (front – back and left – right) must be checked with a water level (photo 2).
In order not to make a mistake when welding, first you only need to bait the frame of the step at one point and correct its position in level. And then weld the frame completely. Sutures should be applied to the maximum. Despite the fact that every millimeter of the welded seam is capable of carrying a load of 50 kilograms, it is better to insure yourself. The stairs must be safe!
After all the steps are in place and welded securely, you need to clean the seams from scale and paint over them with soil. You can now walk up the stairs. But this is not enough. For convenience and safety, there is not enough fence and railings.
Installation of handrails and fences
Safety fences and railings in stairs fulfill not only their intended purpose – to serve as a support for hands when going up and down, but also a decorative function. There are many ready-made railing posts, balusters and railings from a wide variety of materials that can be successfully used for self-assembly of the stairs. In this example, the railing posts are made of 80 x 45 mm pipe, and the balusters and railings are made of a square pipe with a section of 20 x 20 mm.
The work begins with the preparation of balusters and railing posts. The balusters in this case are pieces of a square pipe with a section of 20 x 20 mm and a length of 1.1 m, and the railing posts are pieces of pipe 80 x 45 mm with a length of 1.3 m.After all the blanks are cut, you can proceed to the installation of the balusters starting from the lower steps. The balusters are tacked for welding, set vertically in level and completely scalded along the perimeter of the base. The whole process is shown in photos 3 and 4..
The greatest difficulty is the installation of handrails on the winding steps. You can simplify the task by abandoning the semicircular parts, but in this case you will have to make two transitions from one step to the other. Photo 5 clearly shows how to mark this difficult place..
Welding must be done one by one. First, weld the lowest part of the railing, then cut off the excess from it in place and grab the first inclined part, then the next flat part and the second inclined part. As a result, you should get, as shown in photo 6. You can round off the railing at the entrance by cutting a straight pipe segment into sectors and welding them. The end part must be muffled by welding a square plate onto it. After welding, it remains to grind the seams and the rounded part is ready.
Inclined parts of the railing are welded onto balusters pre-cut at an angle equal to the slope of the stairs. On the side of the opening at the upper level, a fence is installed, which is attached to the floor with screws. The railing should go over the railing posts on the left and right. A general top view of the railings and fences is shown in photo 7. After welding, you need to grind the seams and you can proceed to paintwork.
Decorative painting of the metal frame
Paintwork begins with anti-corrosion treatment, which is divided into three stages: degreasing, rust removal and priming. Degreasing is carried out with any organic solvent in which you need to moisten a rag and thoroughly wipe all structures. Considering that most of the railings and railings are located vertically, it is better to use a gel converter to remove rust, which does not drain from vertical surfaces, is economical and effective..
Advice:after processing with a gel converter, the surfaces must be degreased again, since it contains substances that form a wax coating on the metal surface.
Priming is carried out by the recommended manufacturer of the paint and varnish material you decide to use for the final primer. In this example, the finish will be made with Hammerite hammer enamel, which has nothing against the domestic GF-21 primer. The primer must be applied to the dried surface after treatment with the converter.
A day later after applying the primer layer, you can proceed to the decorative painting of the frame. Photo 8 shows a jar with hammer enamel, which will cover the frame of the stairs. Despite the fact that all paints for metal by the English company Hammerite Products Ltd, which has been part of the international chemical concern ICI since 1998, are designed to be applied over rust, it is better to perform a full range of measures for anti-corrosion protection. Even despite the fact that the inter-level staircase is operated indoors. In this case, the paint lays down without drips, its texture is more pleasant to the touch and looks more attractive.
The main difference between Hammerayt hammer enamel and other enamels of a similar class is that it does not need thermal drying. It is enough to apply the enamel in two layers with an ordinary brush with an interval between application of at least three hours and that’s it – a high-quality decorative coating, resistant to all types of impact, including hammer blows, you’re done! But hammer enamel gains strength for about ten days. Therefore, you should not check it for strength during this period. Photos 9 – 11 show views of the staircase frame, painted with Hammerayt hammer enamel.
Tips:Do not apply the enamel immediately in a thick layer in the hope of getting the job done sooner. Despite the fact that the paint has a jelly-like consistency, with a thick layer, it can flow under its own weight. It is better to apply two thin coats, which lay down very well and dry quickly, without forming drops and sagging.
When applying the first coat of enamel, leave a path in the center of the ladder so that you can use it while the paint dries. Practice shows that you should not trust paint manufacturers who promise that their products dry very quickly! The enamel of this brand, for example, dried up to the point where it stopped sticking to shoes, in a day instead of a couple of hours, as the advertising brochure says.
After the second layer of enamel is completely dry, you can start making and decorating wooden steps.
How and from what to make wooden steps in the “duck step”
There is no doubt that the best material for the steps of the internal interlevel staircase is wood. It is warm to the touch, it is pleasant to walk on it barefoot, the wood has a beautiful texture and suits any interior style. But wood has its drawbacks. The main one is deformation when the humidity in the room changes. Therefore, you should not try to step into the “duck step” from a solid board. Such a step is doomed. In addition to the fact that it bends, it can be easily broken at the bend..
A way out of this situation was invented long ago. For many centuries, the type-glue blockboard has been the basis for the most reliable furniture. It does not deform, as it is glued together from narrow pieces of wood, precisely fitted to each other. The grain direction of the wood in the blockboard varies from strip to strip. The strength of the plate is very high, since the narrow strips, cohesive with glue, are like twigs in a broom, each of which is easily broken individually, but as soon as they are tied, the whole structure becomes very strong.
But in order to make a blockboard, special equipment, well-dried material and certain skills are required. Therefore, for the steps, it is best to purchase a ready-made stove in the store. Now in almost all building hypermarkets you can find accessories for stairs. Including step blanks. A sample of such a blank is shown in photo 12.
This detail is 1 meter long and 30 cm wide. Its thickness is 40 mm. The price of this step blank, made of pine, is about $ 12. In order to make all the steps to the staircase used as an example, only seven standard blanks of the indicated dimensions are required. In addition, the following materials and tools will be required to manufacture wooden duck steps and winders:
- Jigsaw blades designed for clean cuts on thick wood parts (e.g. Bosch T234X);
- Sandpaper or sanding nets (by meter coarse and fine);
- Parquet varnish on polyurethane base for transparent finishing of steps;
- Varnish brush 75 mm wide;
- Thinner for cleaning hands and hands after working with varnish;
- Clamp for screed workpieces from 0 to 800 mm;
- Epoxy glue 50 ml;
- Whatman for templates of winders;
- Pencil, square, tape measure, water level.
First, you need to make and install nine steps in a “duck step”. This will require 5 blanks. From each blank, you can make two curly steps. The markup needs to be done only once, as shown in photo 13. The remaining steps are marked using the first one as a template (photo 14).
Each step must be carefully adjusted in place and numbered so as not to be confused later. The fitting process is shown in photo 15, and the finished steps intended for transparent finishing are shown in photo 16. Grooves for balusters are cut into them. You need to put down numbers with a pencil on the back of each step, so that later they do not accidentally leave on the front side under a layer of varnish.
How to economically make winding steps
Winders are very different from curly ones. They are larger and their shape is much more complex. Therefore, it is worth dwelling in more detail on the technology of their manufacture..
First, you need to copy the shape of the steps onto a paper template. To do this, you need to put a sheet of Whatman paper of a suitable size on the corresponding place of the frame of each of the two winder steps, draw the outline of the step on paper, including the locations of the fence posts, and cut out a paper pattern with scissors. Then it must be laid on the frame and once again checked for accuracy, cutting the paper in the right places if necessary. This process is shown in photo 17..
When the paper exactly repeats the contours of the winder, we can assume that the pattern is ready and now you need to transfer it to a piece of wood.
In order to obtain a “blank” of a suitable size for the future winder, you need to glue one of the whole factory blanks and the scrap remaining from the last figured step. First, the parts are made up for fitting without glue. A pattern is laid on top of them and the workpieces are adjusted so that the minimum waste of material comes out (photo 18). After the best option is found, you need to outline the pattern with a pencil and glue the parts with epoxy glue. This process is shown in Photos 19-20. Modern epoxy-based adhesive sets very quickly. Therefore, it is important to dilute the glue with a small margin and apply it to one of the parts with a notched spatula available in the kit shown in photo 19..
The glue should be applied within a minute after mixing the components and the next minute connect the parts and tighten with a clamp, as shown in photo 20. In five minutes the glue will set, and after an hour the clamp can be removed. The parts will be securely connected, and all that remains is to cut out the winder step itself along the outlined contour with a jigsaw, which is shown in photo 21. When trying on, it usually immediately falls into place.
The same sequence of operations must be repeated to make the second winder. Then you can move on to the transparent finishing of the steps. The savings with this method of manufacturing the winders are obvious. In order to make them from solid square blanks, you will need to pay $ 70 (each 1 x 1 m square piece costs an average of $ 35), and a third of the wood will go to waste. If you glue the parts yourself, then the costs will be only $ 27, including glue, and there will be practically no waste.
Transparent finishing of wooden steps – technology and choice of varnish
Undoubtedly, the staircase is one of the most walkable places in the house. The steps are subject to very high abrasion loads. Therefore, their coating should not only serve to decorate the interior, but also be a reliable protection of the tree..
Traditionally, it is considered that the best varnish for wood, experiencing high traffic loads, is parquet varnish. And the most modern designs should have a polyurethane base. This polymer is very durable and resistant to abrasion. Staircase lacquer should be easy to apply with a brush, dry quickly and give a smooth, even finish..
Photo 22 shows a varnish for parquet and wood from Dufa. It is one-component, toxitropic, it contains polyurethane, dries quickly enough (about 3 hours between layers), there is a glossy, semi-gloss and matte varnish. In addition, this varnish is tinted. It can be selected from more than a dozen shades that imitate valuable wood species. In this example, a pine varnish is used.
Brush for this varnish by Color Expert, 70 mm wide. The choice of brush is important as a poor quality brush will leave surface bristles, streaks and streaks. Photo 23 shows the moment of working with varnish. The first layer of varnish should be applied “along the wood”, that is, along the grain. It must be thin. After all, after drying, the first layer of varnish must be sanded with fine emery paper or mesh. This is how they get rid of the lint on the wood (the smallest wood fibers that did not separate from the base during grinding).
After sanding, rinse the steps with a solvent. The next layer of varnish is applied across the first. And the third layer is again along the fibers. The third layer is final.
Advice:so that the brush does not dry out, but so as not to rinse it every time with a solvent, wrap it tightly in plastic wrap.
Each time, the steps covered with varnish must be laid out to dry, face up (photo 24).
After all the steps of the stairs are varnished three times and completely dry, you can proceed with their installation on a metal frame. Polyurethane, which is part of the varnish, gains strength for two weeks! All this time, it is impossible to do wet cleaning of the stairs and subject it to intense loads..
Installation of wooden parts on a metal frame
The technology for mounting wooden steps on a metal frame is simple. First you need to drill holes in each frame for screws. There should be about 10-12 of them for each wooden step. Then, with a drill of a larger diameter, countersink them from the back of the stairs, as shown in photo 25.
So that the steps do not creak over time and do not loosen during operation, they must be additionally installed on silicone. Silicone is applied to the top surface of the frame prior to installing the step in place. It is best to use colorless silicone. This moment is shown in photo 26.
Immediately after the step is mounted in its place, it must be screwed with self-tapping screws for wood of a suitable length from the back of the frame with a screwdriver (photo 27).
Photos 28-30 show views of the stairs after installing wooden steps from different angles..
Of course, this ladder model cannot be recommended as a panacea for all troubles and salvation in a difficult situation. How many people, so many tastes and opinions. An internal interlevel staircase for someone cannot be a banal household item and then people turn to professionals. And for someone, the decisive factor in favor of self-production and installation will be the price. The cost of an interlevel staircase on a metal frame presented in this series of articles is 11330 rubles. Of them:
- Metal – 6,000 rubles;
- Step blanks – 3000 rubles;
- Soil, rust converter, electrodes, discs, solvent – 1000 rubles;
- Hammerayt metal paint hammer enamel – 600 rubles;
- Polyurethane varnish for wood and parquet – 400 rubles;
- Hardware – 200 rubles;
- Silicone – 130 rubles.
Agree, the tempting price for such a complex structure as a staircase, and most importantly, that it has already been installed and is working for its intended purpose, isn’t this a reason to get down to business?