- On what basis to put the gazebo
- Grillage and floor frame
- Wall base
- Fencing – shape and material
- What should be the floor in the gazebo
- Roof and ceiling
Many people dream of a small covered terrace near the house. But not everyone knows where to start and how, in general, to build an arbor or arbor made of wood, which will be comfortable, convenient and have a significant service life. We will help you understand the main secrets of such buildings with illustrative examples..
On what basis to put the gazebo
Since the gazebo is a light non-capital building, the foundation for it needs a purely symbolic one. However, the base must be strong enough so that the structure does not warp over time from uneven subsidence. And, of course, the floor of the gazebo must be well ventilated, otherwise the boards will quickly become unusable. At the installation site, it is advisable to remove the sod and level the area with crushed stone filling with a layer of about 10 cm.
For the most part, the foundations of the gazebos are a kind of pile-grillage. Piles are used directly only on soft soils or with a significant slope of the surface. On reliable soil, piles can be replaced with shallow pillars, including those made of brickwork. Or even completely – to pave the gazebo on large building blocks.
As for the grillage, it is almost always wooden and also serves as the lower crown of the arbor. Pillars (pedestals) are located strictly under the crown joints: at the outer corners and in the center. Ultimately, the gazebo can be relatively easy to move by digging out the supports and moving them to a new location..
Grillage and floor frame
First, we will build a floor frame with a grillage: we cut blanks of pine timber 100×100 mm in accordance with the length of the walls and their number. Next, work on a hexagonal gazebo will be described, but it can always be made more difficult or simpler..
At the ends of the blanks, mark the notches inward at an angle corresponding to the number of vertices in the base figure. According to the markings, we cut the bar with a hacksaw by 2/3 of the thickness and chop off the hem with an ax.
Inside the base, place the rays connecting the corners to the center. They can be made even from the same timber, even from a 50 mm board per edge. If the gazebo is small (up to 6 meters diagonally), it is better not to tear the boards into beams in the center, but to connect them with a third cut. If the gazebo is four-sided, then the undercut, respectively, is performed in half a tree. You can do otherwise by preparing a wider base for the convergence of the rays, and then fasten them with small kerchiefs placed underneath.
We assemble the parts, check the diagonals and achieve the correct geometry, it is better to strengthen the connections for reliability with clamps. We drill 24 mm holes in the center of each intersection with a feather, in which we hammer pieces of wooden round timber (a rake handle is quite suitable). We put roofing material in 2 layers under each point of support, and where alignment is necessary, add additional linings.
The basis for the walls can be a beam of 150×150 or 100×100 mm, as well as, if a special color is required, debarked logs. We cut the posts into 2.2–2.7 meters in height, while the quality of the trimming of the logs is very important for their reliable fastening without distortion. The lower connection of the pillars does not experience a significant load, it is enough just to prevent the shift, making the connection as unobtrusive as possible.
Therefore, we fasten a pair of steel corner brackets to the bottom end of each column. We place them so that the opposite edge is turned down and fits snugly against the side surface of the grillage when the post is in place. Next, the frame is pulled together by the upper crown: 40 mm boards are stuffed flat on top, cut, like the grillage parts, at a certain angle. Outside, on the sides, the crown is covered with the same board, forming a frame with an L-shaped profile.
Fencing – shape and material
Let us conditionally call its outer walls, based on corner columns, a fence of the gazebo. They may not even be walls at all, most often craftsmen limit themselves to a parapet up to a meter high or some semblance of a transom 20-25 cm from the roof, or even leave openings through.
Choose the type of walls based on the characteristics of everyday life, the presence of gusty winds, the improvement of the place of accommodation, the presence of a green curtain on the gazebo and pets in the yard. However, it can be said with confidence that the best material for filling walls is a lattice made of wooden shingles..
It is easy enough to make it yourself, by dissolving 2-meter-long boards into strips of 1.5-2.5 mm thick. In the space between the pillars, we insert two horizontal beams made of thin boards with a width of about 70-100 mm. One lintel is located at the very bottom, the second – at the height of the parapet. You can attach them to the posts in pre-hollowed grooves with a depth of 10-15 mm, using screws or nails. It is important that the plank is nailed no closer than 30-40 mm from the front plane formed by the posts.
First, we nail the first shingles along the edges, connecting the diagonals of the formed rectangle from left to right. We nail the second crosswise to the first, in the center the connection is not yet strengthened in any way. The upper edge of the third plank is nailed with a 50–80 mm indent to the right of the first. The shingles are arranged in parallel, but the second is inserted into the crosshair from the other side. All strips, except for the first two, are attached either to the upper or to the lower carrier bar.
When the entire mesh is complete, it should be visually aligned, and then hammer in one more nail at the edges of each rail. Intersections should only be reinforced for large openings. This can be done with an ordinary nail, the edges of which are then grinded and sanded, or with a drop of hot melt glue. It will also not be superfluous to walk along the vertical edges of the mesh with a hand circular in order to trim the planks along a common line..
What should be the floor in the gazebo
Only two gender options are worth considering seriously. The first and the simplest is the edged board, which is simply nailed to the grillage and diagonal ribs. This option is recommended if the base of the gazebo is not connected firmly enough: the floor will give additional strength.
The second option is good if the floor system can be assembled independently of the arbor frame. The flooring is carried out with a decking board on tubular posts. Such a floor will last much longer, moreover, it is not afraid of moisture and high operational loads..
It is highly not recommended to cover the floor with bricks or paving slabs, it will be damp and cold in the off-season.
Roof and ceiling
The upper part of the gazebo is represented by a hip roof – one slope for each edge. Usually the rafters are assembled to form a rosette at the top, but this requires an appropriate level of carpentry..
When assembled into an outlet, the logs are arranged along a pseudo-spiral: each subsequent one covers the previous one and fits into a previously prepared notch. The option is good because a ventilation hole is formed under the ceiling.
The roof without a rosette is assembled as follows. The rafters need to be knocked down in the shape of the letter A, but without a joint at the top – only two inclined beams and a crossbar. You need to make one truss for each pair of corners, that is, two for a rectangular and three for a hexagonal arbor. The clearance at the top of the rafters should match their thickness.
All trusses are the same size, but the crossbars must be nailed at different levels. For landing on the upper crown, which serves as a Mauerlat for the roof, 30 mm oblique notches must be made on the beams. The assembly scheme is as follows: first, a truss is placed with the lowest nailed crossbar, another one is inserted from above through the slot. If the gazebo is hexagonal, the third truss is inserted after the second, but the gap in this case must correspond to the turn of the rafters.
Between themselves, the trusses are pulled together by a crate made of unedged boards. On top of it, roofing can be immediately laid, or a solid base can be prepared for bituminous shingles.
The question of filing the ceiling depends on whether the roof will heat up, that is, whether the gazebo is in the sun and how hot the roofing material is. If the ceiling still needs to be hemmed, the trusses are pulled together with horizontal beams, to which the lining or PVC panels are knitted. At the same time, the ends do not need to be refined, because they will be hidden by the upper crown, a rather thin wooden fillet around the perimeter.