A beautiful staircase in the house is undeniably pleasant. But it must still be functional and safe. How to avoid gross mistakes in design, installation, and also provide the most rational options for different layouts – we will find out further.
A staircase is a functional element of a building that connects different heights to each other, provides a person with a comfortable movement. In terms of their execution, these structures are of different types (marching, screw, bolt, with winder steps), differ in material, cost and general appearance. But whatever the ladder, it should be comfortable to climb and descend, for two people to walk in different directions, while being stable, reliable support on which it is safe to be.
Any ladder must meet safety standards and be ergonomic. Be sure to consider the following nuances when creating a project:
1. View of the stairs. The product should harmoniously fit into the space, not look ridiculous, not interfere with moving in other parts. For a small opening, a helical structure is suitable, and for a large-scale building, it is better to give preference to the marching or round version.
2. Levels of “clean” floors. In order not to get unexpected jumps of steps in the future, it is important to know the difference between the heights of the floors before designing (errors of 10–20 mm are permissible along the entire length). Different sizes of the riser can be dangerous for movement – a person can stumble, get injured.
3. Size of steps, slope. The most dangerous movement is when descending, so the steps should be such that when moving down, most of the foot is on the tread. The formula must be observed: 2h + s = 600–630 mm (which corresponds to the average stride length of a person). In this case, the optimal tread size: 300 mm, riser: 150 mm.
4. Width of the march. There is no limit to the maximum march width. But on the other hand, the minimum size should be at least 600 mm – otherwise you may not miss the oncoming person, it will be very inconvenient to move along a narrow staircase.
5. The size of the winders. The length of the winders is not so important, and the angle of rotation of each step is not important either. It is important that the width of the narrowest point allows you to move down along it, holding on to the handrail. The size of the tread in this place must exceed 220-250 mm, and the line of movement in the middle part satisfies the conditions specified above – otherwise it will be dangerous to move along the stairs.
6. Height of the ceiling above the stairs. An important point to pay attention to – at the design stage, you can correct such nuances. When moving up stairs, the upper flight or ceiling must be at a distance of 2 m from the edge of dangerous steps.
7. Entrances and exits in the room. It is necessary to take into account the facing of the stairs, railings, fences that can interfere with entering and exiting the room.
8. Height of the fence. The handrail should be at such a level that it is comfortable to hold on to it. So, on an inclined section, this value should be 900-950 mm, and on a flat area – 1050-1100 mm.
9. Step of balusters. The distance between adjacent vertical posts should be no more than 300 mm (so that a person does not slip between them when falling).
In order to avoid mistakes in the manufacture of the structure, as well as during its installation, the following recommendations should be followed:
- Make a staircase in a separate room (if possible). In order to obtain the greatest accuracy of assemblies, as well as not to damage furniture, household items, a separate space should be allocated where it will be convenient to assemble the future product, check the dimensions, and eliminate errors.
- Do not perform facing work in the building until the installation of embedded elements, basic parts of the structure. In order not to have to dismantle the already installed drywall, various elements, you should install the embedded elements in advance in the places that you plan to sheathe in the future.
- Consider the dimensions of assembly units. If the staircase is not manufactured in the place of its installation, then it is necessary to provide for its transportation, sliding into the room. It is better to break the staircase into parts that can enter the elevator (if the staircase is in a high-rise building), pass through the doorways.
- Install the structure securely. The most important factor in installation is rigidity. It is necessary to perform well not only the installation of mortgages, but also to link all parts of the stairs to each other, if necessary, strengthen the structure.
- Provide for the fastening of glass elements. In order for glass to safely adjoin metal, wood, rubber, silicone or fluoroplastic bushings, gaskets should be installed – only through seals can glass be connected to other materials.
- Correctly mount the stairs in a wooden house. A house made of wood tends to shrink, so the staircase should be fixed to the concrete floor in the main part, and connected to the logs in such a way that this does not affect the appearance of the products (provide grooves, special holes). In this case, the staircase itself must be adjusted in height – in order to compensate for the change in the height difference between the floors..
Tips for cladding stairs and installing railings
Please check the dimensions on site for ordering different parts from third parties. It may happen that the design dimensions differ from the real values, which must be taken into account.
Before installing handrails, cladding elements, check their dimensions. Glass elements, turning parts, wood, stone products ordered from companies should be carefully measured for the correct size – in order to return them in time for rework in case of defects (and not waste time and money on transportation, unsuccessful installation).
Leave gaps for facing steps. Any details have errors, so you should take this into account. Make the gaps between glasses 8-10 mm, and between metal and wood, stone – 3-7 mm.
Immediately provide for embedded elements for fastening the balusters. Before laying wood or stone, it is necessary to fasten or weld nuts, pins or special elements for fastening the counter assemblies.
Consider the sequence of skidding and assembling the fence. The fence (especially bulky) should be assembled from the upper floors so as not to damage the already assembled structure.
Glass elements must be replaceable. In case of damage to the glasses, they should be easily removed, and new ones should be installed in their place (so that you do not have to disassemble the floor of the stairs).
The installation of a staircase is a troublesome and responsible task, but it can give an amazing result that will delight the eye and serve for many years. An integrated and large-scale approach to construction will make it possible to make a structure that will be both beautiful and safe.