According to their functional purpose, the main elements of buildings are divided into load-bearing, enclosing and combining both of these functions. The load-bearing elements take on the loads from the structure of the building itself, atmospheric influences, and people. Fencing divide the building into separate rooms and perform protective functions (heat and sound insulation, protection from atmospheric influences). Elements that connect the bearing and enclosing functions must combine both qualities.
The building has an underground part located below the level of the sidewalk (ground) or a blind area and above ground. The blind area is a narrow strip around the building, covered with stone materials, concrete or asphalt concrete. It has a slight transverse slope to drain water away from the building. The building structure consists of the following elements.
Fig. 1. Structural diagram of a two-story house.
1 – foundation; 2 – basement floor; 3 – waterproofing; 4 – basement walls; 5 – blind area; 6 – external walls; 7 – internal walls; 8 – floor slabs; 9 – partitions; 10 – rafters; 11 – attic floor.
The supporting part of the structure that serves as an “intermediary” between the load from the building and the ground. If the soil under the foundation is in an unchanged (natural) state, such a foundation is called natural. If the soil has to be strengthened before erecting the foundation, the foundation is called artificial.
The foundations are exposed to variable temperature and groundwater, therefore, during their construction, materials with increased strength and resistance to environmental influences are used. These include reinforced concrete, concrete, rubble stone. Foundations made of reinforced concrete slabs and blocks are very common. Foundations for small houses and cottages are subdivided into tape (they are laid along the lines of future walls) and columnar (in the form of free-standing pillars).
According to their location and purpose, they are divided into two types. External walls enclose and protect the premises from the effects of the external environment. The interiors divide the rooms among themselves. According to the degree of the load falling on them, the walls are load-bearing, self-supporting and non-bearing. The load-bearing walls (6, 7) bear a load not only from their own weight, but also from the weight of other structures (roofs, ceilings, etc.). Self-supporting walls are called walls that transfer loads to the foundation not only from their own weight, but also from the wind; ceilings and other building structures do not rest on them. Moans that enclose the premises of the building from the external space and transfer their own weight within each floor to other supporting structures are called non-bearing.
The cornice is the upper part of the outer wall extending beyond its plane. The functional purpose of the cornice, in addition to its decorative qualities, is to protect the building from water flowing down from the roof. If the building does not have a cornice, a parapet is arranged along the perimeter of its roof.
Horizontal planes combining enclosing and bearing functions. The overlappings dividing adjacent rooms in height are called interfloor (8), overlappings above the upper floor are called attic (11). Ceilings are made of reinforced concrete panels, less often – from wooden beams, to which ceiling parts are attached (from chipboard, plywood, drywall).
Lightweight walls resting on ceilings and dividing the interior space into separate rooms within one floor (9). For their manufacture, gypsum and fiberboard plates, hollow stones, bricks and other materials are used..
Protects the building from atmospheric precipitation (10). The roof is located above the attic floor and can be made of either reinforced concrete panels (flat) or other materials (wooden or concrete beams, etc.).