- Post-plant stress of conifers
- Creating conditions for increasing root formation
- Structuring the topsoil
- Providing moisture. Irrigation modes
- Chemical stimulants of root formation
- Nutrition of conifers after transplant
- Protection of young conifers from adverse climatic conditions
- Preparing for winter
- Coniferous plants care in the winter garden
- Protection from spring dryness and burning
The health of conifers in the garden depends not only on the quality of the purchased seedlings and compliance with the planting rules. Careful care: proper watering, stimulation of root formation, protection from burns, damping-off – will help the new settlers to survive the stress caused by transplantation.
Conifers are conquering more and more space in our gardens and yards. The reasons are obvious:
- a variety of shapes, sizes, many shades of needles in skillful hands become excellent tools for forming the image of a garden, its structure;
- evergreen needles make the landscape of the site cheerful, even wrapped in snow.
Acquisition of high-quality, winter-hardy seedlings, proper planting is only half of the success in growing them. Attention and simple care will help coniferous new settlers adapt to a new place and lay a solid foundation for their growth and longevity.
Post-plant stress of conifers
According to the degree of stress resulting from transplantation, conifers can be divided into two groups:
- Closed root seedlings.
- Plants with an open root system and large-sized plants.
Of course, the gardening industry does not stand still. Modern nurseries take care of ensuring the high survival rate of the seedlings they sell. Most conifers are offered for sale with a closed root system in pots, tubs.
The preparation of planting material in a nursery is not only the formation of a fluffy, developed crown. Great efforts are made to create a compact underground part of the plant with a large number of adventitious roots. For this, systematic root pruning is performed, transshipment from a smaller container to a larger one..
The high survival rate of plants grown in this way has led to the appearance on the sale of very large specimens in pots. In garden centers, you can find 3-meter spruce, fir, larch, even higher thuja and columnar junipers. If these plants have a healthy appearance, there is no yellowing of the tips of the needles, there is no need to fear for their survival.
Advice!When purchasing a large coniferous plant in a pot, be sure to check the root system. To do this, gently lay it on its side and gently slide the pot away from the root ball. A properly formed plant has many dark and lighter roots, tightly intertwining the planting substrate. The lump should be wet, and from its shape it can be seen that the tree grew in this particular pot.
With such a check, you will protect yourself from unscrupulous traders who are trying to sell a tree that has just been dug from the ground with chopped roots and hastily placed in a tub. Plants with a dry clod should not be purchased. No rescue measures will increase the survival rate of such seedlings, but will only prolong the time of their slow death..
In some cases, coniferous plants come to personal and summer cottages from nurseries and forestries with an open root system. Since their underground part did not form and grew freely, the main conducting roots, as a rule, are cut. The work of digging, delivering and planting such plants requires special knowledge and technology, it is better to entrust it to specialists, and post-planting care can be provided independently.
To help new pets cope with the stress of a transplant, adapt and begin to develop normally, you must:
- stimulate root formation;
- give the right amount of moisture;
- provide access to the necessary batteries;
- create a comfortable microclimate and safe wintering.
Creating conditions for increasing root formation
The biggest problems during transplantation and in the first years of living in a new place are created by an injured root system. Because of this, conifers experience a lack of water and nutrition. The lack of moisture is indicated by:
- drying out of the tips of the needles;
- small annual growth;
- drooping, dropping needles.
The following measures will help to increase root formation, and, therefore, the delivery of the necessary food and water..
Structuring the topsoil
Loose soil structure provides access to the roots of oxygen, water, creates favorable conditions for active growth. The primary technique for its creation is mulching..
Coniferous mulch usually consists of similar woody materials. It can be coniferous litter from thuja, juniper, cones, crushed pine bark, wood chips. Covering the surface of the soil, the mulch layer retains moisture in it, protects against overheating, compaction and weeds. The soil covered with mulch does not form a crust.
Providing moisture. Irrigation modes
For the root system of a coniferous plant to enter the optimal mode of functioning in a new place, a considerable time must pass. A container plant needs 1-2 years. The root system of a transplanted krupnomer requires increased attention for 4–5 years. First of all, there must be sufficient watering. The entire root ball must be saturated with moisture..
Important! Don’t hope for rain. They do not wet the soil to the required depth.
Although conifers are created by nature to be resistant to transpiration (needles evaporate less moisture than leaves), measures must be taken to reduce it. One of the techniques is crown sprinkling. Periodic irrigation of trees along the entire height reduces moisture loss. Additionally, especially on hot days, the plants are shaded with screens made of burlap or non-woven fabric..
Chemical stimulants of root formation
The so-called phytohormones are good helpers in enhancing the growth of the root system. They are especially effective on damaged, injured roots:
- indoleacetic acid preparation – “Heteroauxin”;
- indolylbutyric acid preparation – “Kornevin”.
Important! There are other trade names for these stimulants. When making a choice, make sure that one of the acids is present in the composition.
Spraying with “Epin” and “Zircon” helps to improve immunity, recovery after winter and spring burns.
Nutrition of conifers after transplant
If the planting pit is filled with a well-formulated soil mixture and mineral fertilizers, additional fertilizing is not needed in the first years.
Excessive nutrition even harms conifers, especially fresh organic matter, unripe manure.
Container plants from European nurseries have a supply of long-lasting fertilizers in the planting substrate for several years in advance.
Only periodic potassium supplementation will not be superfluous. It normalizes water balance in plant tissues, facilitating adaptation.
Protection of young conifers from adverse climatic conditions
Preparing for winter
Rainy autumn weather provokes the development of fungal diseases, soaking of the roots, and preheating of the root collar. To alleviate these troubles, coniferous plants leaving in winter need to provide airing of the crown, drainage of excess water. Free the root collar from mulch.
A large number of conifers perfectly tolerate the winter without shelter in central Russia, the Urals, the North-West:
- spruce prickly and ordinary;
- Scots pine, mountain;
- thuja western;
- juniper ordinary, medium, creeping forms of rocky, Virginia, Chinese and many others.
To protect vertical forms (thuja western Brabant, Smaragd, Skyrocket junipers, Blue Air) from falling apart by snow, trunks and vertical branches are tied. Frames made of slats or thin boards help to protect the correct geometric shapes (spherical, ovoid) of plants from snow deformation..
Important! Do not wrap coniferous plants with foil, burlap, non-woven – this will lead to damping of the needles.
Covering materials are used by pulling on protective screens and screens. On the crown, you can not tightly wrap with permeable materials. An inexpensive option – building facade mesh.
Coniferous plants care in the winter garden
The main winter activities in a young coniferous garden are the release of crowns, fragile shoots from the severity of the snow cover. The branches of the trees are carefully shaken off, starting from the bottom, gradually moving to the top.
Dwarf and creeping forms are left under a snow cover, if necessary, additionally rake up loose snow.
Protection from spring dryness and burning
Sunny days of the last month of winter and early spring are dangerous for many conifers. At this time, there is a danger of extensive damage to the needles. This is due to the fact that the root system is in frozen soil and is unable to absorb water, while the needles continue to evaporate it. Especially warmed by the bright spring sun.
They suffer greatly from this: Canadian spruce Konik, many varieties of Chinese juniper, rocky, Korean fir, berry yew.
Dwarf and creeping plants get burned when the snow cover settles in spring. The most vulnerable forms with variegated (golden, blue, white) color of needles.
To combat burns and desiccation, shading frames and screens covered with fabric are installed on the south side. Such shelters can be removed only after the soil has completely thawed, when the root system can pump water. Burn prevention – selection of resistant species and varieties, planting in the shade of buildings and large trees.