- Timely pruning is the key to a rich harvest
- Basic pruning techniques
- How to cut branches correctly
- How to prune trees correctly
- Pruning young trees 1 to 3 years old
- Pruning and shaping shrubs for rejuvenation
- Treatment of the soil after pruning
In this article, we will show you how to properly shape trees and shrubs. How to avoid uprooting fruit trees by rejuvenation: pruning, thinning and shortening the crown.
Looking at beautiful, strong trees, without a single leaf on the ground, many believe that the owner was lucky with the choice of the variety or that he uses some special preparations that allow him to grow a healthy crop. In fact, correct soil tillage and annual pruning are important points in garden maintenance. Her goals:
- ensure access of light and air to all branches, which will allow the tree to resist diseases and insects;
- timely remove old branches that will break under the weight of the fruit, and weak sterile stems;
- to achieve an annual harvest, given that pome breeds (pears and apple trees), if pruned incorrectly, bear fruit in a year.
Timely pruning is the key to a rich harvest
According to the seasons, there are two types of pruning: summer and winter.
Winter pruning is carried out with the onset of cold weather (but not frost), when sap flow stops, and in early spring, while the trees are still dormant. All major pruning procedures fall during this period..
Summer pruning is done during the growing season of plants. This is the removal of excess green shoots and tops, which is carried out without harm to the plant..
In the photo above, we see new branches that began to stretch out in the spring. They can be removed in the summer as they will not bear fruit. This pruning technique is able to solve a specific problem – to free the tree from unnecessary work, without harm to the plant..
Basic pruning techniques
Crown formation begins with the removal of all branches that have stretched inward, up and down over the summer.
In the photo, we see that the branches are intertwined, the skeletal trunk consists of two parts. This tree was worth pruning in winter.
The more “ruthlessly” we cut off the extra branches, the more quality fruits we will get when harvesting. It is an important component when pruning wood..
The main purpose of pruning (shortening), at first glance, full-fledged branches that are considered redundant is visible in the following photo.
Branches with well-developed buds had to be cut in half. In this case, the fruits pull the stems down and fall off, the supply of nutrients to the entire tree is disrupted.
How to cut branches correctly
Experienced gardeners distinguish three main cutting techniques..
Large branches are cut down with a garden saw, as if along a ring sag.
Small branches are cut with pruning shears, determining the correct place of cut – on the ring.
The cut line of branches that do not have an annular overflow is determined visually by dividing the trunk into two lines – parallel to the trunk and perpendicular to the axis of the branch that you want to cut. The saw cut should be done along the bisector of the resulting angle.
Pulling out shoots and removing buds is also referred to as tenderloin. The procedure is carried out in the spring when the buds begin to fill. Then you can see which of them will thicken the crown uselessly. They also include tops – buds growing from the trunk. They can be removed by hand along with pieces of wood. Minor wounds formed during this “heal” without additional treatment.
Root shoots slow down the development of the tree. It must be removed several times a season. Aboveground pruning is ineffective, since the shortened shoots, supplied with moisture and warmed by the sun, begin to stretch again. Its growth will stop for a long time if you remove the top layer of soil above the root system and cut the plant from the root.
How to prune trees correctly
Pruning trees is the same pruning, divided into several techniques:
- stump trim
- trimming “for translation”
Bud pruning– This is the shortening of the stem in a place where there is a healthy bud in order to change the direction of growth of the branch. It should be located on the part of the stem where you want to direct the future branch. The cut is made with a sharp pruner. It is important to choose the correct cutting direction.
Pinchingor the removal of excess shoots is used in the summer. After removing the green top, the growth of the branch stops, and the remaining part of the branch turns into a skeletal branch, which will subsequently bear fruit.
Shortening a branch to “translate”means pruning a part of the shoots on a branched branch, leaving only the one that “translates” the new trunk in the desired direction.
Stump trimmingused in the rejuvenation of shrubs or “dwarf” trees. For fruit trees, such a “stump” shortening is unacceptable, except for those cases when it is required to re-graft on a healthy tree that does not bear high-quality fruits, cuttings of another or several varieties.
The vaccination site should be greased with garden varnish, pulled off with electrical tape and wrapped with woolen cloth. The most suitable time for grafting another variety is spring, summer, early autumn, while sap flow continues.
Pruning young trees 1 to 3 years old
In young seedlings, it is necessary to cut off new shoots until the trunk is extended to a meter length.
The process of pruning young trees is to allow the trunk to mature and form. During the first 2 years, only 2–3 skeletal branches are formed, growing at an angle of 40 degrees relative to the leading trunk. The procedure is repeated in the fall and spring. Shoots should not exceed 50–70 cm. In the third year, the tree begins to form according to the same pattern as adults.
Pruning and shaping shrubs for rejuvenation
The technology for pruning fruit bushes is individual for each plant.
Evergreens shorten as the growth grows, giving the bushes a certain shape.
Fruit and berry bushes – according to a specially developed scheme. Many species need to be cut in the fall “on a stump” and wrapped for the winter, and some are cut to a certain size. The main procedure for rejuvenating shrubs is spring pruning. It is aimed at freeing the bush from unnecessary shoots that intersect with the main branches, at thinning the stems for light access and providing oxygen.
Treatment of the soil after pruning
A properly processed plant requires additional feeding. In autumn, the soil in the garden is mulched with compost or manure. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are required. Summer – potassium-phosphorus supplements.
A well-groomed garden prolongs the duration of fruiting for a long time, and correct pruning contributes to the development of strong and juicy fruits.