- Garden strawberry varieties
- Decorative varieties
- Breeding methods for garden strawberries
- Growing strawberries from seeds
- Reproduction by dividing the bush
- Propagation of strawberries by daughter outlets
- How to choose the right strawberry seedlings
Strawberry is a universal culture, it can be grown in various conditions, the main thing is to figure out what this plant needs. An important role is played by the correct choice of varieties suitable for your conditions, as well as the correct planting of strawberries. Read about all this in our article..
Garden strawberry varieties
Today there are a great many varieties of strawberries, so it is quite difficult for an inexperienced gardener to make a choice. What should you pay attention to when choosing a variety in the first place:
- The type of soil in the area where you plan to place strawberry beds.
- Ripening terms.
- Drought and cold resistance.
- Disease resistance.
- Weight and size of berries.
- Taste and yield.
Based on the above, we select a variety that suits your preferences and growing conditions..
All strawberry varieties are divided into repair, non-repair and decorative..
Repairers differ in that when certain necessary conditions are created for them, they can delight you with a harvest almost all year round. Repaired varieties are used for cultivation in heated greenhouses or for home cultivation on balconies and windowsills. We talked about the methods of cultivating strawberries in a city apartment in the article “How to grow strawberries on a windowsill”.
- Sasha F1– large-fruited high-yielding variety (berry weight up to 35 g), powerful bush, up to 30 centimeters high. The berries are especially sweet; with proper care, you can get up to two kilograms of strawberries from a bush.
- Yummy F1– the plant is powerful, giving a small amount of whiskers. Berries of medium size (15–20 g), conical shape, very sweet.
- Yellow miracle– a high-yielding variety, characterized by high winter hardiness, yields a harvest from June to the very frost. Small berries (8-10 g), with yellow skin and not very dense white pulp, characterized by a pronounced aroma of wild strawberries.
- Queen Elizabeth 2– the most famous repair variety of garden strawberries. Differs in high productivity, large fruits, good winter hardiness. When creating the right conditions, it bears fruit from early spring to New Year’s holidays..
Non-remontant varieties bear fruit once a season and can be of early, middle and late ripening.
- Stranger– early variety, sprawling, vigorous bush. Differs in excellent winter hardiness and resistance to various fungal diseases. Berries are large, rounded-conical in shape with aromatic dense pulp and dark red skin.
- Ducat – a high-yielding large-fruited variety with an average ripening period, resistant to drought and diseases.
- Zemklunika – a unique non-repairable mid-early variety obtained by crossing wild strawberries and garden strawberries. Differs in a pronounced aroma. The maximum yield is demonstrated only in hot summer with constant watering.
- Borovitskaya – late large-fruited variety. Berries of the correct blunt-conical shape reach a weight of 35 grams. Differs in high resistance to diseases and low temperatures.
Today, there are specially bred decorative strawberry varieties for sale, intended solely for decoration. They are used to decorate vertical beds, flowerpots, alpine hills, various types of flower beds. In addition, they are ideal for growing in a city apartment..
The most popular varieties of decorative strawberries are:
- Pink panda– this variety does not produce fruits, it is used exclusively for decorative purposes, thanks to the unusual, very beautiful bright pink flowers.
- Baron Solemacher– an ornamental variety of alpine strawberries, which throughout the summer produces very small, but at the same time sweet and aromatic berries. It takes root well in partial shade, therefore it is ideal for growing on windowsills.
It is impossible to describe all varietal diversity within one article. More information can be found in numerous reference books or from specialists in your region. It should be remembered that, if possible, it is necessary to purchase varietal strawberries in farms specializing in the cultivation of this particular crop. By buying seedlings from random sellers in the market, you risk getting something completely different from what you wanted.
Breeding methods for garden strawberries
You can buy garden strawberry seedlings, or you can grow them yourself. There are three ways to propagate strawberries:
- growing seedlings from seeds;
- dividing the bush;
- rooting mustache.
Growing strawberries from seeds
This method will require patience and hard work from you, but the results will be worth it. It is used when it is necessary to update the varieties available on the site – absolutely healthy, high-quality seedlings are obtained from the seeds. In addition, this is the only way to reproduce repair small-fruited strawberries, which practically does not release a mustache..
Healthy unripe berries with pronounced varietal characteristics are harvested for seeds. Then, with a sharp blade, very carefully cut off the thin top layer of pulp, where the seeds are located. The cut pulp is ground on clean paper or cotton cloth and dried in the sun for 3-4 days. Well-dried seeds are carefully winnowed from the pulp, poured in paper bags and stored in a well-ventilated place at room temperature. Small berries can be dried whole and stored as such. Strawberry seeds, subject to proper storage conditions, retain good germination for three to four years. We talked about how to properly store seeds in the article “How to collect and store seeds to get a good harvest”.
Seeds of garden strawberries for seedlings are sown in late February – early March. Given their very small size, they are best germinated in the light. Therefore, be patient and carefully spread them over the surface of well-moistened soil. And so that the seeds do not fall into the soil mixture and are clearly visible, the soil is sprinkled with a thin layer (0.5 cm) of fine sand, after having moistened it well with a spray bottle. The container is covered with polyethylene or glass, which prevents moisture from evaporating. Practice shows that strawberry seeds germinate well after 10-14 days, even without preliminary stratification (aging at low temperatures for two to three weeks).
Strawberry seedlings are carefully dived into separate containers when the first true leaf appears. If the seeds were sown densely, it is necessary to make a dive earlier – small seedlings will tolerate transplanting better.
In pots, strawberry seedlings are grown until mid-July, after which they are transplanted to a previously prepared garden bed in open ground.
An important condition for the successful cultivation of strawberry seedlings is a sufficient amount of light and hardening. It is necessary to use additional lighting, even if the pots with seedlings are on the window, and when warm weather comes, it is recommended to expose the seedlings to the open air.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
This method is used when there is a shortage of planting material, or if you urgently need to transplant valuable varieties to a new bed. You can divide the bushes when they reach the age of three to four years. At the same time, well-developed plants with a healthy rhizome and a developed root system are selected..
By dividing the bush, repair strawberry varieties are usually propagated, which do not form whiskers (daughter rosettes). The bushes are dug up in spring or early autumn, carefully divided into parts and planted separately on the garden bed, each horn with roots and a well-developed rosette of leaves.
Propagation of strawberries by daughter outlets
It is recommended to remove the whiskers during fruiting – they take away the strength of the plant, as a result of which the yield is significantly reduced. And if you grow seedlings from daughter outlets after harvesting, then by the time they are planted in a permanent place, they do not have time to form. Therefore, to obtain strawberry seedlings, it is necessary to select certain uterine bushes, from which peduncles are removed, and all forces go to the formation of a full-fledged mustache.
For reproduction, no more than the first three daughter outlets are used, the rest simply do not have time to form well before disembarkation.
The whiskers that appear are pinned to the ground with a wire, while deepening them a little to form a root system. When the rosette is well rooted, it is separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a new bed. Daughter outlets can be rooted separately in pots – it’s even easier to transplant them later.
How to choose the right strawberry seedlings
As already noted, garden strawberry seedlings should not be purchased from random vendors in the market, even if they have pretty bushes in your opinion. In this case, you can not only get a re-grading, but also bring dangerous diseases and pests to the beds. Only in specialized nurseries can you get healthy varietal material, and besides, there are still useful tips for caring for each specific variety..
When buying seedlings, you should carefully examine the plant, paying attention to the following points:
- the horse system must be well developed and not damaged;
- the leaves themselves should not be damaged;
- the heart of the bush (core) should be green or light green in color, elastic and strong;
- seedlings should not be lethargic;
- there should be no more than two or three strong leaves on the planting bush – in this case, the seedlings do not lose moisture and take root better in a new bed.
Each particular strawberry variety has its own characteristics, however, the basic principles of growing different varieties of this crop are practically the same. We will discuss agricultural technical issues in growing strawberries in the next article..