- Planting grapes
- Grape care
- Propagation of grapes
- Propagation of grapes by cuttings
- Propagation of grapes by grafting
- Propagation of grapes by layering
Grapes are one of the favorite crops among amateur gardeners, but planting, reproduction and proper care of the vine require knowledge of the characteristics of this plant. In this article, we will tell you about the main technological methods that allow you to get an excellent harvest in areas with a temperate climate..
The choice of the right place for planting depends on the yield, development rate and longevity of plants. Grapes are a light-loving culture, therefore, the most illuminated places on the site should be allocated for planting, having foreseen the prospects for shading, for example, overgrown fruit trees.
The grapes are unpretentious to the soil, but they do not like the close occurrence of groundwater (less than 2.5–3 meters) and the high content of clay. The best for table grapes are considered to be rich in humus, moisture-permeable soils – loams and chernozems. The landing site must be prepared in the fall. The selected area should be well dug to a depth of 50-60 cm and manure or compost should be added, at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m2.
It is best to plant grapes in spring, when the weather is warm and the danger of frost has passed. A small amount of humus is introduced into the prepared hole and the seedling is placed along with a clod of earth, after which it is covered, mulched with peat and watered abundantly. The seedling is cut off before planting, leaving two shoots with two eyes on each. A peg is placed next to the seedling to which it leans. In the first two weeks, watering is carried out every two to three days, then the intensity is reduced.
Agrotechnics of grapes varies greatly depending on the cultivated varieties and climatic conditions of the area, but the general principles must be known to every gardener who decides to succeed in viticulture..
After the grapes are planted, it is necessary to monitor the seedlings, keeping the soil loose. As it grows, weak shoots are pruned, leaving the fastest growing, which are tied to pegs. At the end of July, pinching must be done (removing the tip of the shoot with two or three leaves).
The grape bush must be formed, otherwise strong growth will complicate its care and will take away the strength of the plant, reducing its yield. The main vine should be about a meter high and consist of one or more trunks growing out of the ground. From the main vine, whips diverge. The tied bush should be fan-shaped, no more than one and a half meters high. Dried and diseased branches should be pruned. If the shoots interfere with each other, then the most successful ones are left, the rest are removed. After the harvest ripens, the lashes are cut off, keeping only those that grow from the ground, they are pinched and brought to the peg – they are the future replacement for the old vine.
In addition to removing diseased shoots, it is necessary to carry out a planned annual pruning of grapes. It is done twice a year, in spring and autumn, while the plant is still inactive. In autumn, during the fall of leaves, all green shoots are cut off, in the spring they remove frozen and dead branches. The length of the pruning is determined by the characteristics of the growth and development of grape shoots, it is believed that for every millimeter of diameter, 1.1 eyes should be left.
Catarovka is the removal of all roots from the underground part of the vine within 15–20 cm from the surface. This operation protects the plant from freezing and drought, transferring nutrition to deep-lying roots, it is carried out simultaneously with the planned pruning. However, if the grapes are well covered during the cold season, this procedure can be neglected, since it shortens the growing season, and, therefore, the time for ripening of the brushes..
For the winter, grapes must be covered, protecting them from freezing. In areas with severe winters and deeply freezing soil, the vine must be hidden as late as possible, a few days before frost, so that the outflow of nutrients from the shoots can take place. Usually, grooves are dug, 15-25 cm deep, where the grape bushes are laid and covered with a small layer of earth, dry straw, spruce branches or manure are piled on top, and then pressed with soil 15-20 cm thick.
Propagation of grapes
Propagation of grapes by cuttings
The easiest way to propagate grapes is by cuttings. In autumn, after falling leaves and before the onset of frost, cuttings are cut with a diameter of 5-10 mm, a length of about 30-40 cm, with three to four buds.
After that, tied in bundles, they are taken to the basement or placed in a wintering groove next to the bushes. In early spring, the cuttings are cut, the lower bud breaks out and a third of the length is furrowed with a knife. Then the prepared cuttings are soaked in water for 2 days. The stems that have collected water are placed in a glass jar with a 3 cm layer of water and exposed to the sunny side. After 10-12 days, shoots will go, and after another week – roots.
Propagation of grapes by grafting
Sometimes a gardener comes across poor-quality planting material or some variety does not meet his expectations, but cutting down an unnecessary bush is an unprecedented waste, so we are deprived of a ready-developed root system. For such situations, there is reproduction by grafting – the combination of a developed root system of a stock and a young cuttings (scion) of the desired variety. The main feature of the method is that the stock retains its qualities below the grafting site, and above we get a new variety of grape vines. Vaccination can be carried out at any warm season when the air temperature is above 15 ° C. The most reliable and simplest is root grafting. With this method, a hole is dug up to a depth of 20 cm around the trunk (main trunk), after which the old root is cut off at a depth of 10-15 cm.
Next, the stock is split with a knife and cuttings cut in the form of a wedge with one or two eyes are inserted into the split, the grafting site is pulled together with twine. The hole is covered with loose earth and well watered, followed by the usual care when planting. It should be borne in mind – if the stem is thick enough, several cuttings can be grafted onto it at once, usually up to 4 pieces.
Propagation of grapes by layering
Reproduction by layering is the oldest and easiest way. A long healthy vine is chosen from a bush of grapes, located not far from the ground, they dig a groove 10 cm deep, bring humus into it and lay the shoot, pinning it to the ground. Further, depending on whether one or more shoots are planned to be obtained, sprinkle the shoot with loose earth along the entire length or partially. In the latter case, the end of the vine, which remains not dug, is tied to a peg and a hole is formed. During the summer, the cuttings are watered 2-3 times a month, if they have time to grow up to 60 cm, they are minted (the top of the shoot is removed), feeding the bush with potassium foliar dressing. In the fall, the shoots are separated from the main bush and laid for storage, and in the spring they are planted in the usual way.
Seed propagation is rarely resorted to, since most grape varieties give a wide range of hereditary qualities and not always for the better. This method is interesting for people engaged in breeding and breeding new varieties, but not suitable for amateur gardeners.