- Facing brick fence
- Fence breakdown
- Calculation of the amount of material
- Bricklaying. Pillars
- Bricklaying. Piers
- Bricklaying. Seams
- “Rough” fence (base). The cheapest option
How to calculate the correct material for the fence? What is the difference between finishing bricks and how to use used sand-lime bricks? How to correctly lay out the axes, calculate the size of the span, what are the ways of laying pillars and filling the walls? In this article you will find answers to all these questions..
In the previous article, we mentioned different technologies for constructing pillars and walls. In this one we will tell you how practically each option is done. Consider the most popular type of fence masonry. Initial data:
- Brick – smooth facing (not “bassoon”) or new solid ceramic.
- Supports – on hollow metal or concrete pillars.
- Snap – hidden (pillars are erected separately from the walls).
- Infill – lightweight with plinth or brick wall.
Let’s start with a quick overview of the material needed for construction for any selected technology and recall the requirements:
- Solution. The sand should be clean, the cement should be fresh (not stale), the grade is not lower than 400. Sometimes powder toner is added to the solution to give color to the seams. Its proportions are completely on the conscience of the operator..
- Brick. All nuances (color, pattern, size, manufacturer) should be taken into account at the selection stage.
- All metal parts and elements must be free of rust.
- If you intend to prepare concrete – take the time and wash out the crushed stone, not much is needed.
The tool you need:
- Mason’s set – pick, trowel (trowel), cord.
- Steel (carpentry) corner 400×400 mm.
- Small level (300-500 mm), usually 2 m.
- 10×10 square – 6 m.
- Grinder with discs for metal and stone.
- Scaffolds, extensions, buckets, etc..
We will mention the rest of the tools and materials along the way..
Facing brick fence
Structural and finishing masonry combines bearing capacity with a spectacular appearance. Factory quality provides a “even” look for each brick. The task of the master is to maintain the harmony of the entire structure. To do this, you must adhere to strictly verified calculations..
This stage begins with the choice of bricks, and not only a drawing, but also a specific plant. The location of the pillars depends on the size of the span. At this stage, the rule works: the split of the axes – first of all. Typically, the full span width is 2.5–3 m.
An example of calculating the span of a fence along the axes. Let’s say we need to build a fence with length Lforgot = 19.1 m. Finishing brick of WDF format 210x100x65 mm was chosen.
1. We calculate the dimensions of a square pillar. The principle of “well” masonry implies one spoon and one butt brick in each row. Lateral post size Lst will be equal to: the length of the brick plus its width plus the seam (10 mm):
Lst = 210 + 100 + 10 = 320 mm.
The distance from the edge to the axis is: L / 2 = 320/2 = 160 mm.
2. We calculate the length of a multiple unit of the wall Letc – brick length plus joint thickness:
Letc = 210 + 10 = 220 mm.
In this case, the optimal number of multiple units Netc in one wall – 9-12 pcs.
The length of the wall will be equal to Letc (220) multiplied by Netc (9-12).
3. Calculate the multiple unit of the fence Eforgot. This is the width of the post plus the length of the wall plus one seam thickness:
- at Netc = 9: Eforgot = 320 + 220 x 9 + 10 = 2310 mm;
- at Netc = 10: Eforgot = 320 + 220 x 10 + 10 = 2530 mm;
- at Netc = 11: Eforgot = 320 + 220 x 11 + 10 = 2750 mm;
- at Netc = 12: Eforgot = 320 + 220 x 12 + 10 = 2970 mm.
The same values will correspond to the distances between the axes of the supports (span).
4. The distance between the extreme axes of the entire fence Ltotal will be equal to the length of the fence Lforgot minus twice (on each side) the distance from the edge to the axis of the pillar Lst/ 2, that is, minus the width of one column Lst:
Ltotal = Lforgot – Lst = 19100 – 420 = 18680 mm.
5. We select the number of spans N, which is closest to the whole (we divide the length of the future fence Lforgot on Eforgot in different cases).
- N9 = 18680/2310 = 8.08 pcs.
- N10 = 18680/2530 = 7.38 pcs.
- N11 = 18680/2750 = 6.79 pcs.
- N12 = 18680/2970 = 6.11 pcs.
From the calculations, we got two results close to the whole – 6.11 and 8.08 pcs. Due to the fact that they differ in the number of spans, we will also divide further calculations into two options, providing the opportunity to choose in each case.
Option 1: with N = 9. Round off the number of spans 8.08 to 8 pcs. The number of posts is equal to the number of spans plus one post for a total of 9 posts. In practice, a small remainder from 0.08 span (almost a whole brick) can be “hidden” by moving the last pillar.
Option 2: with N = 12. Round off the number of spans 6.11 to 6 pieces. Number of poles – 7 pieces.
The logic of choice in this case is based on the realities of the site and the general view. If we talk about laboriousness, then it is easier to add brick to each row than to concrete an extra pillar. We accept option 2 with twelve bricks in the span and seven pillars.
Based on the formulas given, you can easily and accurately calculate the amount of material and calculate all the elements based on the size of the brick. All calculations were performed in order to find out the location of the posts. How to install them and concrete the foundation for the fence, read our article.
Calculation of the amount of material
1. The number of bricks in a row of one section (from axis to axis) N1R will be equal to the sum of the number in the row of the span and the column. There are 4 bricks in one row of pillars:
N1R = 12 + 4 = 16 pcs.
2. The number of bricks in 1 row of the entire fence N1forgot will be equal to the number of 1 row of 1 section multiplied by the number of sections:
N1forgot = 16 x 6 = 96 pcs.
3. Number of rows of fence.
The height of the fence H must be a multiple of the height of the complete row H1. The height of the row is equal to the thickness of the brick plus the thickness of the seam:
Н1 = 65 + 10 = 75 mm.
Let’s say the desired fence height Hforgot = 2 m. Number of rows NR will be equal to Hforgot, divided by the height of the full row H1:
NR = 2000/75 = 26.6 pcs., round to 27 rows.
4. The total number of bricks for the entire fence will be equal to:
NCyrus = N1forgot x NR = 96 x 27 = 2592 pcs., round up to 2600 pcs.
It will be useful to calculate one more indicator – the number of bricks in one section Nsec:
Nsec = N1R x NR = 16 x 27 = 432, accept 430 pcs.
The calculation of the consumption of mortar for brickwork is made according to the formula:
Vrast = (LCyrus + HCyrus) x BCyrus x Bthe seam x NCyrus, Where
- LCyrus, HCyrus and inCyrus – length (0.21 m), height (0.065 m) and width (0.1 m) of bricks;
- INthe seam – seam thickness (0.01 m);
- NCyrus – the number of bricks in the masonry.
Vst = (0.21 + 0.065) x 0.1 x 0.01 x 2780 = 0.7645 cubic meters. m.
Taking into account losses and filling of posts, the total consumption will be about 1 cubic meter. m.
After pouring the foundation and concreting the rods, the foreman has little room for maneuver in the form of a gap (up to 40 mm) between the pipe (frame) and the inner wall of the “well”. This makes it possible to check everything again, since the rods can deviate for a number of reasons. Permissible vertical deflection of the rod – 30 mm along the entire length.
Note. The stumbling block between the masonry masters is the waterproofing under the fence wall. Regardless of the polarity of opinions, we recommend doing it. The easiest and most convenient way is to apply a water-dispersible or bituminous composition (it is possible to make markings on it in the future).
A 10×10 mm square needs to be cut into rods: 8 pcs. 50 cm and 1 pc. 10 cm each. The consistency of the solution is oily (dense, but not loose, with sufficient moisture content). The brick must be rejected in advance (according to the amount of the ready-made mortar) and distributed among the workplaces.
Note.The difference between dry pressed (SP) and ceramic (clinker) bricks consists of three main points – water absorption, quality and strength. Due to firing, ceramic bricks often have deviations in size (up to 4 mm), they are faster saturated with water, but much more durable (allows you to edit the masonry with a pick). SP-brick has the exact size, less “pulls water” (more time for corrections), but fragile.
1. We lay out the first rows (dry, without mortar) on the extreme spans and establish the real location of the “wells” of the pillars. We fix the markup with a marker.
2. Using a cord, we orient the squares of the pillars and pull it for the starting row, fixing it to an independent fixed point (you can drive the rail in the right place or fix it on the foundation).
3. We lay out the rods of the square along the inner edge of the marking and apply a solution with a thickness of 10 mm (the square serves as a thickness limiter).
4. Lay the brick on the mortar so that the square is on its outer edge. We strictly maintain the border of the column along the cord.
5. We limit the application of mortar to vertical joints with a short rod..
6. Carefully check the level of the installation of each brick, if necessary, correct it with a mallet.
7. Repeat steps 3-6 on the opposite extreme span.
8. The next rows are laid out according to the same principle – a rod as a limiter.
9. Backfilling of the space between the rod and the brick should be done on each row.
10. Every 2-3 rows we lay a welded mesh 50x50x3, cut to 30 mm from the edge of the brick. We install embedded parts (rods with hooks at the ends) from 4-6 mm wire into the seams without a mesh.
11. If anchoring is provided, install the anchors in the proper places for welding or bolts. The dimensions of easy filling should be calculated in advance, based on the row of the wall.
12. As the pillar “grows”, apply a longer level and plumb line. The extreme pillars are of particular importance, since in the future they will serve as beacons for internal supports.
13. After laying out the extreme pillars, we arrange the internal.
Binding of a post with a hollow rod and a wall: 1 – pipe O 30–80 mm; 2 – embedded wire Ø 4–6 mm; 3 – mortar or concrete
Binding a post with a reinforced concrete rod and a wall: 1 – frame clamp made of wire Ø 4–6 mm; 2 – embedded wire Ø 4–6 mm; 3 – mortar or concrete; 4 – vertical working rods Ø 12-14 mm
The description looks quite simple, but for someone who is doing such work for the first time, we recommend that you first practice at the experimental training ground..
The device of spans is fundamentally no different from pillars.
- In a separate span, we mark the pillars for the abutment of the pier (in the center).
- We install the extreme bricks on the mortar (through the rods).
- We pull the cord along the span for the first row (along the upper edge of the brick).
- We fill the row, strictly adhering to the cord and checking with the level.
- When laying the mortgage mesh in the seam, we cut it to the size of a brick.
When using a 10×10 mm square rod as a stopper, a smooth, evenly filled seam forms by itself during the laying process. If the task is to make a “semi-antique” wall, or a regular (non-finishing) new brick is used, then the masonry is carried out using the “jointing” method. This method does not provide for restraints, and the joint is completely filled with mortar. Having driven out several rows, the master wipes the front sides of the wall with a rag. After laying out the daily volume, the seams are ironed with a special spatula – “jointing”. Thus, they are compacted and take on an acceptable form..
This is where the theoretical part can be ended, because in the future the success of the case depends only on the accuracy and attentiveness of the master. Finally, we will describe the budget option for building a brick fence.
“Rough” fence (base). The cheapest option
If there is a whole used brick in stock, for example, after dismantling a building, you can lay out a fence from it. Initial data:
- Material – silicate (white) brick with dimensions of 250x125x85 mm.
- Laying method – “on the edge”.
- Anchoring method – constructive with or without reinforcement.
- Rod – reinforced concrete or hollow tube.
- Span filling – solid masonry or lightweight.
The main difference from the hidden binding is that in this case the wall is integrated into the pillar and is carried out simultaneously with it. In this case, part of the brick from the span row is pinched in the pillar masonry, as shown in the figure. The cavity inside the support is gradually filled with mortar or concrete. The result is a full-fledged reinforced concrete pillar in a brick “formwork”.
Masonry on the edge with constructive binding: 1 – a rod from a profile pipe 40×40 / 60×60
Whichever option you choose, remember that the size, condition and material of the fence can tell a lot about how the owner treats his house and plot. Even if it is a blank wall and the house itself is not visible behind it. Choosing a stone fence, a person silently and irrevocably designates his rights to land and way of life. The service life of a properly laid brick fence is equal to the service life of a brick in its masonry, which speaks of the far-reaching plans of the owner and care for the descendants.